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132 Cards in this Set

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who was gulliver?
From "Gulliver's Travels", Swift, main character of satire goes to Houyhnhmn island, assimilates into their culture, and eventually depises humans
Who are the Yahoos?
they have long hair, hairy backs, defecate on people, represent carnal instinct of man

Jonathan Swift
Who are the Houyhnhnms?
bevevolent horses who live in Utopian society based off of Plato's Republic.

Gulliver's travels, Jonathan Swift
who is Candide?
the optimistic character in the satire who travels across seas and renounces his belief in Panglossian philosophy afterward

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Paquette?
chambermaid of Cunegonde's mother, has affair with Pangloss, becomes prosititue later on

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Pangloss?
"everything is for the best" contradictory character who never lets philosophy fail him, teacher of Candide in Thunder Ton Trunk

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Jacques the Antabaptist?
sold authentic Chinese rugs made in Amsterdam, cares for Pangloss and Candide, pestimist about human nature, drowns in River of Lisbon trying to save an ungrateful soldier

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Cunegonde?
Candide's lover who at the beginning is very beautiful and later turns into a hag.

Candide, Voltaire
Who is "the old woman"?
has story of succession of catastrophes, used to wealthy and noble, now only a hag. "loved life too much" to kill herself

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Cacambo?
believes reason is abstract, metaphysical goes to El Dorado with Candide, more optimistic than Martin, optimism based on duality, medium between Pococurante and Pangloss, driven by idea that something will happen

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Martin?
responds to Candide's ad looking for person most disgusted with his life, believes evil in world is dynamic power, believer in manicheanism (devil v. god) and pestimissm, when seeing ship sink says, "God punished Captain, but devil killed innocent people."

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Pococurante?
translated means "little care", rich, bored because of affluence, doesn't like Homer because its "one fight after another" he can't be happy with anything

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Orou?
artifical man who asks Almoner to sleep with his daughter, they have discussion about new and old world culture, religion is not natural, but Orou follows "natural law"

Denis Diderot "Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville"
Who is the Almoner?
confined by morality, religion, civic/law and cusotom

Denis Diderot "Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville"
Who is Lady Mary Wortley Montague?
purposed smallpox vacinations, discrete voice, goes to see later in Turkey, Sultana Hafiten

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, "The Turkish Letters"
Who is Sultana Hafiten?
Turkish royalty lady who challenges Lady Mary's world perspective by saying "you christain women..."

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, "The Turkish Letters"
who is Mirzah Abu Taleb?
Indian man who traveled to England to notice cultural differeces.

"Travels of Mirzah Abu Taleb" by Mirzah Abu Taleb
Who is Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa?
black prisoner of war/slave who became free and recorded his account.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who is Captain Henry Pascal?
He first arrived in London as Captain Henry Pascal’s slave. Pascal renamed Equiano Gustavus Vassa

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was Richard Baker?
How did Equiano learn how to read and write? From his dialogue with his friend, Richard Baker, Equiano expressed his determination to read and write and understand books. Baker obliged him the request.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was Robert King?
He was acquired by Robert King, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who traded in the Caribbean. King set Equiano to work on his shipping routes and in his stores, promising him, in 1765, that he could one day buy his own freedom if he saved forty pounds, the price King had paid for Equiano. King taught him to read and write more fluently, educated him in the Christian faith, and allowed Equiano to engage in his own profitable trading as well as his master's behalf, enabling Equiano to come by the forty pounds honestly. In his early twenties, Equiano bought his own freedom.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was the Ibo? (Igbo)
tribe in which Equiano was born into in Nigeria
Who is Basho?
Japanese poet
what is Thunder-ten-tronckh?
example of Eden in "Candide", where Candide is raised, he thinks that it has to be the best place in the world
Who is Sultana Hafiten?
Turkish royalty lady who challenges Lady Mary's world perspective by saying "you christain women..."

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, "The Turkish Letters"
What is Eldorado?
example of Utopia in Candide, here it is much like the Houyhnhmn island, the children do bnot care about jewels here.
who is Mirzah Abu Taleb?
Indian man who traveled to England to notice cultural differeces.

"Travels of Mirzah Abu Taleb" by Mirzah Abu Taleb
What is Lisbon?
The three travel to Lisbon together, but before they arrive their ship runs into a storm and Jacques is drowned. Candide and Pangloss arrive in Lisbon to find it destroyed by an earthquake and under the control of the Inquisition.

Candide, Voltaire
What is Buenos Aires?
When they reach the territory of Surinam, Candide sends Cacambo to Buenos Aires with instructions to use part of the fortune to purchase Cunégonde from Don Fernando and then to meet him in Venice.

Candide, Voltaire
Who is Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa?
black prisoner of war/slave who became free and recorded his account.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
What is Constantinople?
The mecca of trade in Turkey where Candide ends
What is Essaka?
Olaudah Equiano was born in Essaka, an Igbo village in the kingdom of Benin, in 1745
What is Montserrat?
Upon arriving at the island of Montserrat, Equiano was sold to the Quaker merchant Robert King from Philadelphia.
Who is Captain Henry Pascal?
He first arrived in London as Captain Henry Pascal’s slave. Pascal renamed Equiano Gustavus Vassa

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was Richard Baker?
How did Equiano learn how to read and write? From his dialogue with his friend, Richard Baker, Equiano expressed his determination to read and write and understand books. Baker obliged him the request.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was Robert King?
He was acquired by Robert King, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who traded in the Caribbean. King set Equiano to work on his shipping routes and in his stores, promising him, in 1765, that he could one day buy his own freedom if he saved forty pounds, the price King had paid for Equiano. King taught him to read and write more fluently, educated him in the Christian faith, and allowed Equiano to engage in his own profitable trading as well as his master's behalf, enabling Equiano to come by the forty pounds honestly. In his early twenties, Equiano bought his own freedom.

"The Interesting Narrative of the LIfe of Olaudah Equiano" by Oladuah Equiano
Who was the Ibo? (Igbo)
tribe in which Equiano was born into in Nigeria
Who is Basho?
Japanese poet
what is Thunder-ten-tronckh?
example of Eden in "Candide", where Candide is raised, he thinks that it has to be the best place in the world
What is Eldorado?
example of Utopia in Candide, here it is much like the Houyhnhmn island, the children do bnot care about jewels here.
What is Lisbon?
The three travel to Lisbon together, but before they arrive their ship runs into a storm and Jacques is drowned. Candide and Pangloss arrive in Lisbon to find it destroyed by an earthquake and under the control of the Inquisition.

Candide, Voltaire
What is Buenos Aires?
When they reach the territory of Surinam, Candide sends Cacambo to Buenos Aires with instructions to use part of the fortune to purchase Cunégonde from Don Fernando and then to meet him in Venice.

Candide, Voltaire
What is Constantinople?
The mecca of trade in Turkey where Candide ends
What is Essaka?
Olaudah Equiano was born in Essaka, an Igbo village in the kingdom of Benin, in 1745
What is Montserrat?
Upon arriving at the island of Montserrat, Equiano was sold to the Quaker merchant Robert King from Philadelphia.
What is Shirakawa Gate?
Crossing the barrier at Shirakawa was one of the high points on Basho's trip. In his opening lines he specifically mentions how eagerly he looks forward to the crossing at Shirakawa.
WHat is Matsushima?
Later, around the end of the 17th century, Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who is considered the master of Haiku poetic literature, visited Matsushima and gave it the highest possible praise for its beautiful scenery in his book of journey entitled "Okuno Hosomichi."
What is Gassan (Moon) Mountain?
Although Basho says they climbed Gassan on the 8th, Sora says it was 6.6 (7.22). One interpretation for this confusion of dates is that the moon would have been fuller on the 8th, so Basho used the date to harmonize with the name of the mountain which means moon mountain. The most likely explanation, however, is that he simply mistook the date.
what is a minnean satire?
deemphaize character, plot and story to deal with fundamental ideas.
What is a junvenalian system?
mean and nasty wihtout trying to hide anything
What is Shirakawa Gate?
Crossing the barrier at Shirakawa was one of the high points on Basho's trip. In his opening lines he specifically mentions how eagerly he looks forward to the crossing at Shirakawa.
What is an understatement?
Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. This is not to be confused with euphemism, where a polite phrase is used in place of a harsher or more offensive expression.
WHat is Matsushima?
Later, around the end of the 17th century, Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who is considered the master of Haiku poetic literature, visited Matsushima and gave it the highest possible praise for its beautiful scenery in his book of journey entitled "Okuno Hosomichi."
What is irony?
Irony, from the Greek εἴρων (dissimulator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history).
What is Gassan (Moon) Mountain?
Although Basho says they climbed Gassan on the 8th, Sora says it was 6.6 (7.22). One interpretation for this confusion of dates is that the moon would have been fuller on the 8th, so Basho used the date to harmonize with the name of the mountain which means moon mountain. The most likely explanation, however, is that he simply mistook the date.
What is inversion?
Anastrophe is a figure of speech involving an inversion of the natural order of words; for example, saying "echoed the hills" to mean "the hills echoed." In English, with its settled word order, departure from the expected word order emphasizes the displaced word or phrase: "beautiful" is emphasized in the City Beautiful urbanist movement; "primeval" comes to the fore in Longfellow's line "This is the forest primeval." Where the emphasis that comes from anastrophe is not an issue, "inversion" is a perfectly suitable synonym.
What is Shirakawa Gate?
Crossing the barrier at Shirakawa was one of the high points on Basho's trip. In his opening lines he specifically mentions how eagerly he looks forward to the crossing at Shirakawa.
what is an oxymoron?
a contradiction
what is a minnean satire?
deemphaize character, plot and story to deal with fundamental ideas.
What is a junvenalian system?
mean and nasty wihtout trying to hide anything
what is picaresque?
The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for "rogue" or "rascal") is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a corrupt society.
WHat is Matsushima?
Later, around the end of the 17th century, Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who is considered the master of Haiku poetic literature, visited Matsushima and gave it the highest possible praise for its beautiful scenery in his book of journey entitled "Okuno Hosomichi."
what is bildungsroman?
A bildungsroman (IPA: [ˈbɪldʊŋs.roˌmaːn]/, German: "novel of education" or "novel of formation") is a novel which traces the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the main character from (usually) childhood to maturity.
What is an understatement?
Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. This is not to be confused with euphemism, where a polite phrase is used in place of a harsher or more offensive expression.
What is Gassan (Moon) Mountain?
Although Basho says they climbed Gassan on the 8th, Sora says it was 6.6 (7.22). One interpretation for this confusion of dates is that the moon would have been fuller on the 8th, so Basho used the date to harmonize with the name of the mountain which means moon mountain. The most likely explanation, however, is that he simply mistook the date.
what is slave narrative?
narrative of slaves
What is irony?
Irony, from the Greek εἴρων (dissimulator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history).
what is a minnean satire?
deemphaize character, plot and story to deal with fundamental ideas.
What is Shirakawa Gate?
Crossing the barrier at Shirakawa was one of the high points on Basho's trip. In his opening lines he specifically mentions how eagerly he looks forward to the crossing at Shirakawa.
What is inversion?
Anastrophe is a figure of speech involving an inversion of the natural order of words; for example, saying "echoed the hills" to mean "the hills echoed." In English, with its settled word order, departure from the expected word order emphasizes the displaced word or phrase: "beautiful" is emphasized in the City Beautiful urbanist movement; "primeval" comes to the fore in Longfellow's line "This is the forest primeval." Where the emphasis that comes from anastrophe is not an issue, "inversion" is a perfectly suitable synonym.
WHat is Matsushima?
Later, around the end of the 17th century, Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who is considered the master of Haiku poetic literature, visited Matsushima and gave it the highest possible praise for its beautiful scenery in his book of journey entitled "Okuno Hosomichi."
What is the Great Chain of Being?
God

angels

human

animals

inert minerals
What is a junvenalian system?
mean and nasty wihtout trying to hide anything
what is an oxymoron?
a contradiction
What is Gassan (Moon) Mountain?
Although Basho says they climbed Gassan on the 8th, Sora says it was 6.6 (7.22). One interpretation for this confusion of dates is that the moon would have been fuller on the 8th, so Basho used the date to harmonize with the name of the mountain which means moon mountain. The most likely explanation, however, is that he simply mistook the date.
What is an understatement?
Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. This is not to be confused with euphemism, where a polite phrase is used in place of a harsher or more offensive expression.
What is irony?
Irony, from the Greek εἴρων (dissimulator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history).
what is picaresque?
The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for "rogue" or "rascal") is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a corrupt society.
What is inversion?
Anastrophe is a figure of speech involving an inversion of the natural order of words; for example, saying "echoed the hills" to mean "the hills echoed." In English, with its settled word order, departure from the expected word order emphasizes the displaced word or phrase: "beautiful" is emphasized in the City Beautiful urbanist movement; "primeval" comes to the fore in Longfellow's line "This is the forest primeval." Where the emphasis that comes from anastrophe is not an issue, "inversion" is a perfectly suitable synonym.
what is an oxymoron?
a contradiction
what is bildungsroman?
A bildungsroman (IPA: [ˈbɪldʊŋs.roˌmaːn]/, German: "novel of education" or "novel of formation") is a novel which traces the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the main character from (usually) childhood to maturity.
what is a minnean satire?
deemphaize character, plot and story to deal with fundamental ideas.
What is a junvenalian system?
mean and nasty wihtout trying to hide anything
what is slave narrative?
narrative of slaves
what is picaresque?
The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for "rogue" or "rascal") is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a corrupt society.
what is bildungsroman?
A bildungsroman (IPA: [ˈbɪldʊŋs.roˌmaːn]/, German: "novel of education" or "novel of formation") is a novel which traces the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the main character from (usually) childhood to maturity.
What is the Great Chain of Being?
God

angels

human

animals

inert minerals
What is an understatement?
Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. This is not to be confused with euphemism, where a polite phrase is used in place of a harsher or more offensive expression.
what is slave narrative?
narrative of slaves
What is irony?
Irony, from the Greek εἴρων (dissimulator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history).
What is inversion?
Anastrophe is a figure of speech involving an inversion of the natural order of words; for example, saying "echoed the hills" to mean "the hills echoed." In English, with its settled word order, departure from the expected word order emphasizes the displaced word or phrase: "beautiful" is emphasized in the City Beautiful urbanist movement; "primeval" comes to the fore in Longfellow's line "This is the forest primeval." Where the emphasis that comes from anastrophe is not an issue, "inversion" is a perfectly suitable synonym.
What is the Great Chain of Being?
God

angels

human

animals

inert minerals
what is an oxymoron?
a contradiction
what is picaresque?
The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for "rogue" or "rascal") is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a corrupt society.
what is bildungsroman?
A bildungsroman (IPA: [ˈbɪldʊŋs.roˌmaːn]/, German: "novel of education" or "novel of formation") is a novel which traces the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the main character from (usually) childhood to maturity.
what is slave narrative?
narrative of slaves
What is the Great Chain of Being?
God

angels

human

animals

inert minerals
What is the Dialectic of Identity and Difference?
When a character realizes they are different
What is contact zone?
a place where they are contacted?
what is englightenment?
time when aesthetics ideas and concepts were starting to be looked at objectiviely
what is panglossianism
"the best of both possible worlds" idea that everything happens for a reason
what is pococurantism?
nothing makes a person happy
what is a noble savage?
In the 18th century culture of "Primitivism" the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more authentically noble than the contemporary product of civilized training.
what is natural man v. artifcial man?
native man (natural) v. artificial man (euros)
what is manichaeanism?
The most striking principle of Manichaean theology is its dualism. Mani postulated two natures that existed from the beginning: light and darkness. The realm of light lived in peace, while the realm of darkness was in constant conflict with itself. The universe is the temporary result of an attack from the realm of darkness on the realm of light, and was created by the Living Spirit, an emanation of the light realm, out of the mixture of light and darkness.
what is manumission?
Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner.
what is empancipation?
In slavery:
Abolitionism (abolition of slavery), a political movement that sought to end the practice of slavery and the worldwide slave trade
Emancipation Proclamation, a declaration by United States President Abraham Lincoln announcing that all slaves in Confederate territory still in rebellion were freed
The freedom of a slave in accordance with laws under certain conditions
Manumission, the freedom of a slave by the owner voluntarily
Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia, the liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants by Alexander II of Russia
what is Barbary slave trade?
slave trade of Christains by pirates
What kind of place is Castle Thunder-Ten-Tronckh? What does Candide think about it? To what biblical place does it allude?
How does Candide’s experience in the Bulgar army undercut the notion of free will?
What is Pangloss’s philosophy? How does the first paragraph of chapter 3 parody that philosophy?
What is the fate of Jacques the Anabaptist? What does his fate suggest about the relationship between virtue and reward? How does Pangloss explain what has happened to Jacques?
In chapter 8, why does the Bulgar captain kill the man raping Cunégonde? What does this tell us about his priorities? About his sense of good and evil?
How, in general, does Candide portray religion and religious figures?
What do we learn about the old woman’s character from her story? How does her take on life differ from Pangloss’s? What is her attitude toward her own suffering, and how does Candide interpret her experiences?
Who is Cacambo? What is his take on life? How does his view of the world compare to Pangloss’s or to the old woman’s?
What does the incident with the Oreillons in Chapter 16 tell us about Voltaire’s view of the idea of the noble savage? or his view of the promise of the New World?
Why do Candide and Cacambo leave El Dorado?
Who is Martin? What is his view of the world? How does it differ from that of Cacambo, Pangloss, and the old woman?
How does Candide portray doctors and lawyers, the English?
Who is Pococurante? What is his view of the world?
Who are Brother Giroflée and Paquette? What does their story add to the overall tale?
What do you think about the conclusion? Does it recommend a philosophy about how to live? If so, what is that philosophy? Is it, do you think, viable?
Compare the material circumstances of everyday life in Houyhnhmn-land and Eldorado and explore their connection to virtue as described by the text.
What kind of narrator is Candide? Can he be trusted? What is the significance of his name? How is he like or unlike Gulliver in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels?
How do Candide and or Gulliver’s Travels represent European contact with non-Western culture? What do these points of contact reveal about the beliefs or ideas Europeans possess about themselves and the people they encounter?
How does Voltaire’s treatment of Turkey compare to that we find in Lady Mary Montagu’s The Turkish Letters?
What are the major attributes of the Yahoos? How does Gulliver feel about them? Why does he so vehemently reject the notion that he resembles them?
Describe the apparently idyllic disposition and society of the Houyhnhnms. Why or why not would you like to be members of this society.
Describe the relationship between Houyhnhnms and Yahoos. What are the various proposals put forward to deal with the Yahoos? Do you think their proposals reflect a just society?
Swift’s satire is built upon the binary opposition between the Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms, in terms of individual behavior and character, social organization, and even physical appearance. Both mental and bodily attributes are important in drawing this contrast. How do these oppositions affect your reading of the text? How do those oppositions draw an immediate response that after reflection you might change or qualify?
Swift’s work is insistently scatological and grotesque. Discuss the Yahoos’ physical appearance and their filthy habits. How do these affect your response to the Yahoos? Is that response purely intellectual and critical, or do you have a bodily or physical response?
What distinguishes Gulliver from the Yahoos? Why or how are human beings, like Gulliver, worse than Yahoos?
What signs to we get that Gulliver, the gullible, is become subsumed by, assimilating into, Houyhnhnm culture and society? Is he giving up his humanity or becoming a better person?
Swift was often accused of stooping too low in his humor and of hating all of humankind. What evidence if any do we find in the text to support or to question or challenge this view of Swift’s supposed misanthropy?
How does Gulliver respond when the red-haired female Yahoo’s attraction to him? Why does he respond with such disgust?
How does Gulliver’s description of England turn into a scathing attack on the state of affairs there? What kinds of things does he single out for criticism?
Is Houyhnhnm-land a utopia? Would you want to be a Houyhnhnm and live among them under the strictures of their social order?
What about the Yahoos? Is their world a dystopia? Do they have any positive qualities at all?
Take a close lo at Captain Pedro de Mendez. What does he represent in the text? How is he different from Gulliver?
Discuss the difference between Gulliver’s views and Swift’s. What signs in the text suggest that Swift does not share Gulliver’s attitudes toward his Houyhnhnm masters?
Gulliver’s Travels imitates the popular genre of the travel narrative. One of the problems for authors writing about visits to fantastic places — real or imagined — is that they must convince the reader they have actually seen and done the wondrous things they describe. How does Swift handle the problem of making Gulliver’s fantastic narrative seem valid?
Abu Taleb also criticizes European society. How would you characterize the difference between his attack on European customs and Swift’s? Why might he be more temperate in his critique?
What tone does Equiano establish in his opening paragraph? Whom does he address as his reader? What kind of relationship does he try to establish with that reader? Why?
Equiano begins with a discussion of his childhood home in Essaka. How is Essaka like Candide’s Castle Thunder-ten-Tronckh? What was life in Essaka like?
Describe the conditions on the slave ship. How does Equiano do more than inspire our revulsion to those conditions here? That is, how does he elicit our sympathy for the slaves? What are their feelings? How do we know?
Even in the midst of despair, Equiano takes time to notice and to express a certain joy in seeing flying fish. What does this tell us about him, about his character? What other similar incidents do we find when Equiano makes something good, or finds something to lift his spirits, in the midst of desperate conditions?
At the end of Chapter 3, we are reminded that Equiano is still a child. What details are demonstrable of his innocence? How does he begin forming a sense of racial identity here?
In chapter one, Equiano compares the Ibo with the Israelites, and in chapter 5, he describes Montserrat as land of bondage, alluding to the Israelites captivity in Egypt (see Exodus 1-14). Why does Equiano make these comparisons? How does this allusion to the Israelites help position him in relation to his reader. Where else does Equiano frame his experience in terms of the scriptures? For what purpose?
Equiano’s describes his life as a kind of epic journey of self discovery and self fashioning. How does Equiano depict himself as a kind of Odysseus, Robinson Crusoe or Benjamin Franklin? How do we see him, in other words, employ wit, strategy, will, and imagination to survive
How does Robert King demonstrate that he is “a man of feeling”? How else might he be described? What are the limits of his apparent magnanimity?
Consider Equiano’s presentation of slavery—its affect on both slaves and slaveholders. How do European and American slavers contrast with African slavers?
Consider Equiano’s description of his manumission. How free is he after his manumission? How does freedom affect him?
What leads to Equiano’s religious conversion? Is his conversion a good thing? Is it a cultural and spiritual rebirth? What are the consequences in terms of his racial, cultural, and religious identity? Contrast his assimilation or appropriation of Anglo-American, white culture to Gulliver’s assimilation of the Houyhnhnm ways.
How do Gulliver and Equiano establish credibility as authors? What methods does each employ in appealing to his readers’ sympathies? How is each most successful? Why?
Consider Equiano’s Narrative as a critique of European immorality, hypocrisy, cruelty and greed. How does Equiano address these issues? What role does slavery (and abolition) serve in his critique? How does he use Scripture to bolster his critique?