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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a human made object such as a tool, wapon, or piece of jewelry.
a people's unique way of life
ways of applying knowledge discovered and developed throughout the history of mankind.
Hunter gatherer
nomadic groups whose food supply dependd on hunting animals and collecting plants for food
Neolithic Revolution
the "agricultural revolution", a new beginning which lead to the development of civilization
the taming of animals to do a humans bidding, which decreased the human work load
A complex culture with advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
the development of skils in a specific kind of work. This created artisans
a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community
Bronze Age
the time in which humns began to use bronsee rather than copper or stone for tools (around 3000 BC in Sumer)
a sustem of watering crops in a dry area by means of digging pathways for the water to travel from a river source
A city and its surroundin lands functioning as an independent political unit
The belief in more than one god
a political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are controlled under one ruler
the process of preserving a body for burial developed by the ancient Egyptians
an nient Egyptian writing system in whih pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
a large portion of a continent partially separated from the continent
seasonal thunderstorms with great winds that many times overflow rivers
Mandate of Heaven
The blessing of the gods upon a chinese dynasty that only lasted a few years. It was supposedly lost when isasters began to happen and that was when the dynasty lost power and a new dynasty with the mandate tok control
A political system in which nobles are permitted the use of lands that legally belong to their king in exchange for their loyalty, military serice, and protection of the people who live on the land
a group of semi-nomadic peoples who, at about 1700 BC, began to migrate from wht is now Russia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia
a social hierarchy within ancient India that determined not ony your social status in tis life but also the status that you will reincarnate into
the good or bad force that surrounds a person and determines their caste.
Siddhartha Guatama
the founder of Buddhism who lived in India around 400 BC
a seafaring and trading people who lived on the island of crete from about 2000 to 1400 BC
the seafaring people of southwest Asia who, around 1100 bC began to trande and found colonies throughout the Mediterranean region
The sacred jewish book consisting of the first five ooks of the Christian Bible
the belief in only one God
the leader of the Jeswish people who lead them out of captivity in Egypt
Ramses II
the Egyptian pharaoh who made a treaty with the Hittite king that promised "peace and brotherhood between us forever" their alliance lasted for the rest of the century.
An ancient Nubian Kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt from 751 BC - 671 BC
A southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 BC-612 BC.
An Assyrian King who collected many dictionary tablets from throughout the fertile crescent.
A Persian King who brought power to the region by conquering many different neighboring kingdoms and bringing them under his rule
Royal Road
A road in the Persian Empire spreading over 1600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia
The founder of Zoroastrianism who taught that two spiritual armie fight for one's soul: the army led by the god lof light and truth and that of the god of evil and darkness
the founder of Confucianism who taught that the perfect government is a beurocracy (a trained civil service) and that education is one of the most important things a person should have
a religion founded by Laozi that searches for knowledge and understanding of nature which is why many Daoists are scientists
Shi Huangdi
the debatably paranoid Chinese emperor who established a cruel autocracy
Trojan War
The Greek war between the Myceans and the Trojans that until the nineteenth century was considered completely fictional
An ancient greek epic writer who wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey
A greek city state
a military system used by the Greeks that included soldiers packed tightly together with spears extended upon the enemy. This technique was very effective.
Classical Art
the art of ancient Greece and Rome in which harmony, order, and balance were emphesized
a Greek philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and human existence
an ancient kingdom north of Greece whose ruler, King Philip II, conquered Greece in 339 BC
Alexander the Great
the son of King Philip II who expanded the Empire to its greatest lengths
a culture that combined Greek, Egyptian, and Persian cultures
A hellenistic scientist who accurately estimated the value of pi.
a form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people.
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body originally made up of only aristocrats
A brilliant Carthaginian military strategist who was defeated only by Scipio
Julius Caesar
the leader of the first triumverate who eventually goverend as absolute ruler and brough about many reforms. Eventually he was murdered by fellow government officials
Otherwise known as Octavian, the leader of the second triumverate also eventually became sole ruler and goverened Rome during its golden age: "Pax Romana"
The leader and founder of the Christian religion whom Christians believe to be God. Lived about 0 BC-33 BC
An apostle of Jesus who, althou he never met Jesus, spread Christianity to its greatest lengths through letters and personal contact
A Roman ruler who, after having won a battle due to a Christian apparition, converted to Christianity and encouraged the empire to convert as well
a decline in the value of money, accompanied by a rise in the prices of goods and services
A Roman Poet who carried all the seriousness of a Roman character in his poetry
1. What kinds of evidence do archeologists, anthropologists, and paleontologists study to find out how prehistoric people live?
They look at artifacts and fossils to make assumptions about the ancient world.
Why was the prehistoric period called the "Stone Age"?
Because people back then used stone for tools and weapons. They had not learned to work with metal yet.
What evidence is given to support archeologists; beliefs that Neanderthals developed a form of religion?
Buriel sites dating back 60,000,000 years were discovered which implies religious beliefs
What role did the food supply play in shaping the nomadic life of hunter gatherers?
They basically based their whole lives on their food supply
Why did the growth of civilization make government necessary?
Whenever a large group of people come together to live, they will most likely have varying ideas on what is and is not acceptable within society which leads to varying behavior. Rules need to be established so as to keep order in the community.
Why did a system of record keeping develop in civilization?
So as to have a recording of laws and customs for future generations to abide by.
Name three disadvantages of Sumer’s natural environment
a) The floods were unpredictable
b) There were very limited natural resources
c) There were no natural barriers to stop invaders from attacking
What circumstances led to the beginning of organized government?
The need for laws to settle disputes on how to use land and water sources, the need for large projects such as the construction of an irrigation system, and other needs for organization, cooperation, and leadership.
Herodotus remarked the Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” What did he mean by this?
Egypt only existed because of the Nile, and it has always depended on the Nile. The Egyptians based their entire lives on the Nile.
Give two reasons historians use to explain the downfall of Indus Valley Cities
Natural Disaster and Human Attacks
What was the great disadvantage of the Chinese written language?
There were so many characters to memorize before you could understand what they were saying
Explain the dynastic cycle in China
A dynasty rises to power. They put down all revolts and seem to have the ‘Mandate of Heaven’ or heavenly approval and support of the dynasty. After a while, natural disasters happen. There are revolts and China is attacked. The dynasty has supposedly lost the Mandate of Heaven. They are overthrown. A new dynasty takes over, restores peace to the empire, and the cycle starts over.
How were the Aryans different from the non-Aryans that they encountered when migrating to India?
The Aryans were light skinned and tall. They did not have an recording system and they spoke a different language. They were pastoral people and counted their wealth in cows. They also worshipped nature gods. The desas were dark skinned and not as tall. They had a recording system and a different language. They were town dwellers and lived in communities protected by walls. They worshipped life-giving principals and mother goddesses.
In Hinduism, how are the ideas of karma, reincarnation, and moksha connected?
If you have good karma, you will be reincarnated into a higher level of existence. If you have bad karma, you will be reincarnated into a lower level of existence. If you achieve the highest level of existence you will go to Moksha, or paradise.
Why were the lower castes more likely to convert to Buddhism than to stay in Hinduism?
Buddhism didn’t have the caste system so they didn’t treat those who would be in the lower caste any different than anyone else.
What caused the devision of Solomon's kingdom?
High taxes and forced labor discontented the kingdom. After he died, there were massive revolts that lead to the downfall of the kingdom.
Name two ways that early Judaism differed from other religions of that time
1) monotheistic
2) Covanents with God
How was Darius able to rule such a large empire with absolute power?
He spent many years of his rule setting up a great government system and then establishing provinces within the empire. The provinces were permitted to keep their own land and their customs, but the empire would make the laws.
Summarize the beliefs of Zoroaster
Zoroaster believed that there are two armies fighting for the soul: the god of truth and light and the god of evil and darkness. Your choices control your fate and where you would go after death- paradise or the underworld.
Summarize differences in how Confucius, the Legalists, and Laozi viewed government.
Confucius believed that the government should be a beurocracy (a trained civil service) and that education was VERY important. Laozi believed that the government should do as little as possible with the people and leave them alone to live their own lives. The legalists believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order.
How did the great wall help to unify China?
Firstly, it unified them because they were no longer split apart by foreign enemies who would attack. They were also unified in the terrible labor they endured without choice to make the wall
Why did the Greeks develop myths
they sought to understand the mysteries of nature through these stories about their gods as well as the power of human passion
What were the consequences of the Punic Wars?
The city states had a new sense of freedom, especially Athens who quickly rose to be a leader in a group of city states called the Delian League
Who were the three renowned philosophers of the golden age?
Socrates who invented the Socratic Method, Plato who decided that everyone naturally fell into three groups: workers, warriors, and rulers, and Aristotle who questioned the nature of the world and human existence.
What was the full extent of Alexander's conquered area?
It extended north to what is now Romania, west to what is now Libya, east to what is now India, and South to what is now the southern tip of India.
What four influences blended to form the Hellenistic Culture?
Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian
What did the Epicureans beleive?
They believed that the entire universe was made up of atoms and created by gods who have no interest in humans whatsoever. They also believed that the only objects in existence were those that the five senses could perceive. Also that the greatest good and highest pleasure came from virtuous conduct and the absence of pain, and the main goal of a human is to achieve harmony and peace of mind and thought.
How did Rome treat different sections of its conquered territory?
They respected them and allowed them to keep their own culture, traditions, and ideas as long as the village supplied the Roman army with soldiers.
How did Rome's population fare during Pax Romana?
During this time, the Roman Empire included between 60 and 80 million people, and about 1 million of those people lived in the main city of Rome
Why did the Roman emperors persecute Christians?
The Christians refused to worship the Roman gods which was seen by the rulers as an opposition to Roman rule
Why did so much of Roman culture have a Greek flavor?
Greek city states were very advanced before the Roman Empire formed, so when they DID form, they looked to Greece to provide for good ideas and inventions on which to base their empire. These areas includes architecture, language, literature, engineering, and law.
How might western civilization be different today without the cultural legacy of the Roman Empire?
The Romans gave the world Latin, the arch, the dome, concrete, aqueducts, and a system of law. Latin was very important because the majority of languages spoken today have roots in the Latin language. The arch, the dome, and concrete are significant in architecture for creating the foundations of buildings throughout the world. Aqueducts are widely used to bring water into cities. Law is perhaps the most important contribution because the United States, at the very least, bases its entire judicial system on the Roman’s original idea although with a few alterations.