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59 Cards in this Set

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What were the 95 Theses?
Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the church door in Wittenburg to protest the activities of the priests (particularly the selling of indulgences) in the Catholic Church
Magna Carta
1215 - agreement signed between John I and the English barons that prevented the King from imposing heavy taxes and increased freedom
predestination
idea promoted by John Calvin that God knew before time who would receive salvation
What is nationalism?
The belief that allegiance should be given to the nation rather than to the church or competing nations
What is a "renaissance man"?
Someone who is talented and knowledgeable in a variety of areas; Leonardo da Vinci is considered to be the first "renaissance man"
What is the Treaty of Westphalia?
The Treaty that ended the Hundred Years War and effectively ended the Holy Roman Empire; the treaty strengthened France and weakened Germany and Spain
What is The Prince?
A political treatise written by Machiavelli that outlined his belief that the government is best able to decide what is best for the majority of the people
What is an astrolabe?
An instrument invented during the Age of Discovery that allowed sailors to use the stars to navigate
What was the Renaissance?
A "rebirth" in arts and literature centered in Florence, Italy that eventually spread throughout Europe
What was the Reformation?
The movement begun by Luther to reform the Catholic Church; created Lutherans and other protestant denominations
manor
a small estate from which a lord's family gained its livelihood
fief
piece of land given to a vassal by a lord in return for protection
chivalry
a code of honor that a knight aid the poor, defend the weak, and fight bravely for his three masters: the feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his lady
lord
in feudalism, the person (vassal) who makes a grant of land to another person
serf
a person bound to a manor and owed duties to the lord of the manor
missi dominici
Royal agents of Charlemagne, who checked on the ruling counts
caravel
small ship developed in the 1400s with triangular sails; used first by Portuguese and allowed sailing faster and farther
geocentric theory
the belief that the earth was the center of the universe and the planets and sun orbited around the earth; favored by the Catholic Church
heliocentric theory
belief that the sun is the center of the universe and the planets revolve around the sun; proven by Copernicus and Galileo; angered the Church
Scientific Revolution
1500s and 1600s; new ideas about the universe by using observation (Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, etc.)
guillotine
machine used to behead during French Revolution
journeyman
a person who, after completing an apprenticeship, works at a craft for wages under the supervision of a master
troubadour
In the Middle Ages, a poet and musician who traveled around and entertained people with songs about chivalry
craft guild
an association of people who work at the same occupation
investiture
a feudal ceremony in which a vassal receives land or a bishop takes office
knight
an armored warrior who fought on horseback
apprentice
a person who is learning a trade or craft from a master and who works without pay except for his keep
peasant
a poor farmer, not one in the noble class
constitutional monarchy
a type of government based on a written or unwritten constitution, but with a king or queen as head of state and a parliament as the legislature
icon
a small piece of religious art
feudalism
a political and military system based on the holding of land
divine right
the idea that rulers receive their authority directly from God and are answerable only to God
bourgeoisie
In medieval France, people who lived in burghs (towns) rather than in rural areas; Marx said they were the factory-owning middle class
humanism
emphasis on humanity rather than the divine; displayed in artwork throughout the Renaissance (hands, realistic portraits)
absolutism
a government in which the ruler's power is final
"priesthood of all believers"
the idea that every person can communicate directly with God, rather than only the Pope (Luther)
Bastille
the prison that was stormed during the French Revolution
clergy
priests and ministers in the church
habeas corpus
"present the body" - a democratic right that a person cannot be held captive without being told the evidence for holding him
indulgences
payment to priests in order to lessen time in Purgatory or other religious favor
balance of power
a political and military strategy where small nations may join together to offset the power of a stronger nation
Joan of Arc
young woman who led the French at Orleans and kept France from falling to British rule; later burned at the stake
Machiavelli
wrote The Prince during the Renaissance
John Calvin
Swiss protestant reformer; promoted predestination
Magellan
explorer; his expedition successfully circumnavigated the earth
Copernicus
proved the heliocentric theory, published book on the Revolutions of the Heavenly bodies
Cardinal Richelieu
Catholic who "ruled" France during the Thirty Years War;
John I
signed the Magna Carta in 1215
Michelangelo
painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, sculpted David
Johannes Gutenberg
invented the printing press; movable type
Martin Luther
posted 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg, began Protestant Reformation
Henry the Navigator
Portugeuse navigator who trained explorers and sailors; explored coasts of Africa
Galileo
perfected telescope; proved heliocentric theory, but backed down before the Church
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote The Courtier, a "how to" book for courtiers in the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci
first "renaissance man"; painted Mona Lisa; conducted experiments on flying machines and human anatomy
Johann Tetzel
priest who prompted Luther to post the 95 Theses after his practice of taking advantage of people through the selling of indulgences
Henry VIII
began Church of England after the Pope refused to grant his divorce; married six times
Christopher Columbus
"discovered" America looking for passage to India
Marco Polo
explored China and served in the court of Genghis Khan; wrote book that prompted exploration by Columbus and others