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56 Cards in this Set

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Indian subcontinent
shaped like a triangle hanging from the southern ridge of Asia, is compsed of a number of core regions, including mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau, and fertile coastal plains.
Himalaya
the highest mountains in the world. Directly south of the Himalaya is the rich valley of the Ganges River, one of the chief regions of Indian culture.
Ganges River
one of the chief regions of Indian culture.
Deccan
a plateau that extends from the Ganges valley to the southern tip of India.
monsoon
a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia.
Persian Gulf
where most of trade occured.
Aryans
a group of Indo-European nomadic peoples began to move out of thier original homeland in central Asia. They moved south across the HIndu Kush moutain range.
Hindu Kush
near- Indus and Amu Darya Rivers.
Sanskrit
The Aryans first developed writing system.-1000B.C.
rajas
princes.. usually carved statues
caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
castes
major divisions of Indian classes in ancient times.
Brahmans
usually considered to be at the top of the social scale. They were in charge of the religious ceremonies that were so important in Indian society.
Kshatriyas
warriors- as Aryan society changed teh Kshatriyas often found new forms of employment.
Kshatriyas
warriors, the second caste in Aryan society.
Vaisyas
commoners-3rd ranked caste in Indian society. most of them were merchants who engaged in commerce, or farmers caring for the land.
Sudras
made up the great bulk of the Indian population. The Sudras were not Aryans, and the term probably originally referred to the conquered dark-skinned natives. most sudras were peasants and people who worked at other forms of manual labor. they had only limited rights in society.
Untouchables
the lowest level of Indian society-and in fact not even considered a real part of the caste system. they were given menial, degrading tasks that othere Indians would not accept, such as collecting trash and handling dead bodies. they made up about 5% of the total population of ancient India.
Hinduism
has its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryan peoples who settled in India after 1500 B.C.
They believed in reincarnation,karma,and dharma and practiced yoga.
reincarnation
is the belief that theindividual soul is reborn in a different form after death.
karma
the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life.
dharma
the divine law
yoga
a method of training designed to lead to such union. How does one achieve oneness with God?-practice developed by Hinduism.
buddhism
appeared in nothern India and soon became a rival of Hinduism. The founder of Buddhims was Siddhartha Gautama-known as the Buddha, or "Enlightened One"
ascetics
people who practiced self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality.-Buddism first practiced this and then.. turned to mediation
nirvana
ultimate reality- the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul.
Asoka
The Mauryan Empire flourished during the reign of Asoka- the grandson of Chandragupta maurya.
Silk Road
Silk road passed through the mountains northwest of India.- From Changan in China across central Asia to Mesopotamia.
Changan
in China, where Silk road extended from.
Antioch in Syria
port city on the Mediterranean Sea
Faxian
Chinese traveler, who spent several years there in the fifth century. a Buddihist monk
pilgrims
PEOPLE WHO TRAVEL TO RELIGIOUS PLACES FROM ACROSS INDIA AND AS FAR AWAY AS CHINA CAME TO VISIT THE MAJOR RELIGIOUS CENTERS.
HUNS
NOMADIC-FROM THE NORTHWEST THEY GRADUALLY REDUCED THE POWER OF THE EMPIRE. DESTROYED GUPTAS EMPIRE
VEDAS
THE EARLIEST KNOWN INDIAN LITERATURE FROM THE ARYAN TRADITION IN THE FROM OF THE ^ vEDAS.- PRIMARILY RELIGIOUS
BHAGAVAD GITA
A SERMON BY THE GOD KRISHNA ON THE EVE OF A MAJOR BATTLE.
KALIDASA
ONE OF ANCIENT INDIA'S MOST FAMOUS AUTHORS- WHO LIVED DURING THE GUPTA DYNASTY. HIS POEM THE CLOUD MESSENGER.
ARYABHATA
THE MOST FAMOUS MATHEMATICIAN OF THE GUPTA EMPIRE, ONE OF THE FIRST SCIENTISTS KNOWN TO HAVE USED ALGEBRA.
HUANG HE
YELLOW RIVER-STRETCHES ACROSS CHINA FOR MORE THAN 2,900 MILES, CARRYING ITS RICH YELLOW SILT ALL THE WAY FROM MONGOKIA TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN.
CHANG JIANG
OR YANGTZE RIVER-IS EVNE LONGER FLOWING FOR ABOUT 3,400 MILES ACROSS CENTRAL CHINA BEFORE EMPTYING IN TO THE YELLOW SEA.
XIA DYNASTY
LITTLE KNOWN ABOUT THE DYNASTY. JUST THAT IT WAS REPLCED BY A SECOND DYNASTY, THE SHANG.
SHANG DYNASTY
MOSTLY A FARIMING SOCIETY RULED BY AN ARISTOCRACY WHOSE MAJOR CONCERN IS WAR.
ARISTOCRACY
IS AN UPPER CLASS WHOSE WEALTH IS BASED ON LAND AND WHOSE POWER IS PASSED ON FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER.
ZHOU DYNASTY
LASTED FOR ALMOST NINE HUNDRED YEARS MAKING IT THE LONGEST-LASTING DYNASTY IN cHINESE HISTORY.
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
THE BELIEF THAT HEAVEN- WHICH WAS NA IMPERSONAL LAW OF NATURE-KEPT ORDER IN THE UNIVERSE THROUGHT THE ZHOU KIND. THUS HE REULED OVER ALL HUMANITY BY A MANDATE, OR AUTHORITY TO COMMAND, FROM HEAVEN.
DAO
THE PROPER "WAY"
FILIAL PIETY
FILIAL REFERS TO A SON OR DAUGHTER. FILIAL PIETY, THEN, REFERES TO THE DUTY OF MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY TO SUBORDINATE THEIR NEEDS AND DESIRES TO THOSE OF TEH MALE HEAD OF THE FAMILY.
CONFUCIANISM
OR SYSTEM OF THE CONFUCIAN IDEAS, AN IMPORTANT PART OF CHINESE HISTORY.
DAOISM
WAS A SYSTEM OF IDEAS BASED ON THE TEACHINGS OF LAOZI.
LEGALISM
PROPOSED THAT HUMAN BEINGS WERE EVIL BY NATURE.
REGIME'S
THE GOVERNMENT IN POWER.-OFFICIAL IDEOLOGY.
CENSORATE
HAD INSPECTORS WHO CHECKED ON GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS TO MAKE SURE THEY WERE DOING THEIR JOBS.
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
QIN SHIHUANGDI'S PROJECT
THE HAN DYNASTY
FOUNDER OF HAN DYNASTY WAS LIU BANG, A MAN OF PEASANT ORIGIN WHO BECAME KNOWN BY HIS TITLE HAN GAOZU ("EXLATED EMPEROR OF HAN")
HAN WUDI
ADDED THE SOUTHERN REGIONS BELOW THE CHANG JIANG INTO THE EMPIRE
SOUTH CHINA SEA
PART OF WHAT IS TODAY NORTHERN VIETNAM BECAME PART OF THE EMPIRE.
INDIAN OCEAN
FIND.....