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What does medieval mean?
The term refers to the period of western European history known as the Middle Ages: the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance from the 400s to about 1500 p96
What does the phrase "The Middle Ages" mean?
Period in western European history between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance from the 400s to about 1500; also called the medieval period p96
What does the phrase "The Middle Ages" mean?
Period in western European history between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance from the 400s to about 1500; also called the medieval period p96
What does medieval mean?
The term refers to the period of western European history known as the Middle Ages: the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance from the 400s to about 1500 p96
Who were the Magyars?
Nomadic group who invaded Europe; eventually settled in what is now Hungary p100
Who were the Vikings?
Germanic people from Scandinavia who often raided western Europe during the AD 800s & 900s p101
Who were the Merovingians?
Clovis and his successors, who were generally weak Frankish rulers who left the job of governing to palace officials p96
Who were the Carolingians?
Line of Frankish rulers established by Pepin III's coronation in Ad 751p97
Who was Clovis?
In 481, he became king of one of the Frankish tribes. Clovis and his successors were called Merovingians because Clovis traced his family to an ancestor named Merovech. p96
Who was Charles Martel?
Son of Pepin II, also known as Charles the Hammer. Upon his father's death, he became mayor of the palace. His cavalry defeated the Spanish Moors in 732 when they invaded France. This halted the Muslim advance in western Europe. He died in 741. p97
Who was Charlemagne?
Son of Pepin III who inherited the Frankish throne in 768 & ruled until 814. A devout Christian, he spread church teachings & Christian beliefs. He was declared Emperor of the Romans in 800 by Pope Leo III. He united most of western Europe. p97
Who was Charlemagne?
Son of Pepin III who inherited the Frankish throne in 768 & ruled until 814. A devout Christian, he spread church teachings & Christian beliefs. He was declared Emperor of the Romans in 800 by Pope Leo III. He united most of western Europe. p97
Who was Pepin III (or Pepin the Short)?
Son of Charles Martel became the Merovingian kingdom's joint mayor of the palace with brother Carloman. Pepin III overthrew Childeric III, last Merovingian ruler & was anointed king of the Franks, establishing the Carolingians. Known for the Donation of Pepin, land he conquered & gave to pope. p97
Who was Pepin III (or Pepin the Short)?
Son of Charles Martel became the Merovingian kingdom's joint mayor of the palace with brother Carloman. Pepin III overthrew Childeric III, last Merovingian ruler & was anointed king of the Franks, establishing the Carolingians. Known for the Donation of Pepin, land he conquered & gave to pope. p97
Who was Louis the Pious?
Charlemagne's surviving son well-educated & religious but a weak & shortsighted ruler. He died in 840. Sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, & Louis the German divided empire in 843 with Treaty of Verdun. They fought among themselves & empire was weakened by invaders: Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, Vikings. p99
Who was Louis the Pious?
Charlemagne's surviving son well-educated & religious but a weak & shortsighted ruler. He died in 840. Sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, & Louis the German divided empire in 843 with Treaty of Verdun. They fought among themselves & empire was weakened by invaders: Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, Vikings. p99
What was the Treaty of Verdun?
When Louis the Pious died in 840, his sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, & Louis the German divided up the empire in 843 under an agreement called the Treaty of Verdun. p99
What was the Treaty of Verdun?
When Louis the Pious died in 840, his sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, & Louis the German divided up the empire in 843 under an agreement called the Treaty of Verdun. p99
What was the Donation of Pepin?
The pope sought Pepin's (Pepin III or "the Short") help with the Lombards. The Franks defeated the Lombards and won control of territory around Rome and gave it to the Pope. This gift of land to the church is called the Donation of Pepin. p97
What was the Donation of Pepin?
The pope sought Pepin's (Pepin III or "the Short") help with the Lombards. The Franks defeated the Lombards and won control of territory around Rome and gave it to the Pope. This gift of land to the church is called the Donation of Pepin. p97
How did Charlemagne organize his government and what responsibilities were held by the various officials?
counts governed regions, and missi dominici ensured the counts were serving the emperor p98
How did Charlemagne organize his government and what responsibilities were held by the various officials?
counts governed regions, and missi dominici ensured the counts were serving the emperor p98
What actions helped Charlemagne to unify his empire?
he spread Christian beliefs and captured the Spanish March (small strip of Spanish land) which acted as buffer zone between the Christian and Muslim Europe p97
What actions helped Charlemagne to unify his empire?
he spread Christian beliefs and captured the Spanish March (small strip of Spanish land) which acted as buffer zone between the Christian and Muslim Europe p97
In what ways did the actions of Charlemagne's grandsons cause the Carolingian Empire to become vulnerable to invaders from the north, south, and east?
They divided the empire and fought among themselves.
In what ways did the actions of Charlemagne's grandsons cause the Carolingian Empire to become vulnerable to invaders from the north, south, and east?
They divided the empire and fought among themselves.
What is feudalism?
Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services. p102
What is a fief?
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord. p102
What is vassal?
Person granted land from a lord in return for services. p102
What is primogeniture?
System of inheritance from father eldest son for ownership or possession of land. p102
What is feudalism?
Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services. p102
What is a fief?
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord. p102
What is vassal?
Person granted land from a lord in return for services. p102
What is primogeniture?
System of inheritance from father eldest son for ownership or possession of land. p102
What was manorialism?
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land. The system took its name from the manors of the Middle Ages. Manors were large farming estates that included manor houses, cultivated lands, woodlands, pastures fields and villages. p105
What were serfs?
Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord. p106
What was chivalry?
Code of conduct that dictated knights' behavior towards others. According to the code of chivalry, knights were expected to be courageous in battle, fight fairly, be loyal, keep his word, treat conquered foes gallantly and to be courteous to women and the less powerful. p106
What was manorialism?
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land. The system took its name from the manors of the Middle Ages. Manors were large farming estates that included manor houses, cultivated lands, woodlands, pastures fields and villages. p105
What were serfs?
Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord. p106
What was chivalry?
Code of conduct that dictated knights' behavior towards others. According to the code of chivalry, knights were expected to be courageous in battle, fight fairly, be loyal, keep his word, treat conquered foes gallantly and to be courteous to women and the less powerful. p106
What was the relationship and responsibilities of the lords and peasants on a manor?
Peasants farmed the land giving some crops to the lord and paid taxes; Lords managed the land, collected taxes, and kept the domain (about 1/3 of the land that he kept for himself)
What was the relationship and responsibilities of the lords and peasants on a manor?
Peasants farmed the land giving some crops to the lord and paid taxes; Lords managed the land, collected taxes, and kept the domain (about 1/3 of the land that he kept for himself)
How was medieval Europe differ from previous civilizations?
An organized large scale government was replaced by small, local independent leaders
How was medieval Europe differ from previous civilizations?
An organized large scale government was replaced by small, local independent leaders
What were the chief political and economic characteristics of feudalism and manorialism?
In feudalism powerful nobles granted land to lesser nobles in exchange for loyalty and military assistance. Primogeniture was practiced. In manorialism, a lord and several peasants shared the land of the manor; peasants farmed two thirds of the land, provided services and paid taxes.
What were the chief political and economic characteristics of feudalism and manorialism?
In feudalism powerful nobles granted land to lesser nobles in exchange for loyalty and military assistance. Primogeniture was practiced. In manorialism, a lord and several peasants shared the land of the manor; peasants farmed two thirds of the land, provided services and paid taxes.
What was the top down political structure of feudalism?
From top to bottom: King & Queen, church officials and nobles, knights, peasants and serfs
What was the top down political structure of feudalism?
From top to bottom: King & Queen, church officials and nobles, knights, peasants and serfs
What was the top down political structure of feudalism?
From top to bottom: King & Queen, church officials and nobles, knights, peasants and serfs
How did a boy become a knight?
A boy had to be of noble class & to pass through 2 stages of training. At about 7, he would serve as a knight's page (attendant) learning manners & how to use / care for weapons. As a teen, he would become a knight's assistant, or squire caring for the knight's horse, armor, & weapons. Lastly he would have to prove himself in battle.
How did a boy become a knight?
A boy had to be of noble class & to pass through 2 stages of training. At about 7, he would serve as a knight's page (attendant) learning manners & how to use / care for weapons. As a teen, he would become a knight's assistant, or squire caring for the knight's horse, armor, & weapons. Lastly he would have to prove himself in battle.
What are sacraments?
Church ceremonies at which participants receive God's direct favor, or grace, to ward off the consequences of sin. p108
What is curia?
Group of advisers to the pope drawn from the highest ranks of the clergy. p109
Who were cardinals?
Catholic officials ranking next below the pope. p109
What was monasticism?
Way of life in convents and monasteries where nuns and monks withdraw from the world and its temptations. p109
What was an abbott?
Head of a monastery who controlled and distributed all property. p110
What was an abbess?
Head of a convent who served a role similar to an abbot controlling and distributing all property. p110
What was canon law?
The code of law in the Catholic church. p110
What was an interdict?
The Catholic church's punishment of a region, involving closing churches and withholding sacraments. p110
What was an interdict?
The Catholic church's punishment of a region, involving closing churches and withholding sacraments. p110
What were heretics?
Name for people who denied the truth of the official church's principles or who preached beliefs not approved by the church. p110
What is a tithe?
Church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one tenth of their income; later became a gift to the church representing one tenth of a person's income. p110
What is simony?
Practice of buying high positions in the Catholic Church, common during the Middle Ages. p111
What were heretics?
Name for people who denied the truth of the official church's principles or who preached beliefs not approved by the church. p110
What is simony?
Practice of buying high positions in the Catholic Church, common during the Middle Ages. p111
What was the church hierarchy in the Middle Ages from top to bottom?
pope, curia and cardinals, archbishop, bishop, parish priest
What was the church hierarchy in the Middle Ages from top to bottom?
pope, curia and cardinals, archbishop, bishop, parish priest
Why was the role of the parish priest important to the church?
he conducted services in the village church, and supervised moral and religious instruction
Describe how monasticism developed during the Middle Ages.
monks and nuns withdrew from world to practice devotion to God, church developed communities for them
How did the church attempt to reform itself?
forced heretics to perform penance, punished or executed them
Who was Saint Benedict?
A young Roman who worshipped God as hermit and established a monastery at Monte Cassino. He created rules to govern monk's lives. Monasteries and convents all over Europe adopted these standards called the Benedictine Rule. p109
What was Benedictine Rule?
Saint Benedict created rules to govern monk's lives. Monasteries and convents all over Europe adopted these standards called the Benedictine Rule. p109
Who was Hildegard of Bingen?
She was a nun who wrote religious music & a medical text. She founded a convent at Rubertsberg & served as its first abbess. She was a vocal critic of corrupt church practices. She was later named a saint. p110
Who was Saint Patrick?
A missionary that is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland in 432. Monastic schools in Ireland were the basis of an advanced culture that lasted from about 500 to about 800. p110
Who was Saint Augustine?
A missionary that led a group of monks to English. He became the Archbishop of Canterbury and Canterbury became the center of the Christian church in England. p110
What was the Inquisition?
Institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics. Heretics were forced to perform penance, were punished or executed sometimes by burning at the stake. p111
What was the Inquisition?
Institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics. Heretics were forced to perform penance, were punished or executed sometimes by burning at the stake. p111
What were shires?
Governmental districts in early England; governed by a shire-reeve (sheriff) p112
What is common law?
Law based on customs and judge's decisions rather than upon written code. p115
How did William the Conqueror's actions in 1066 change England?
It led to a combination of Anglo-Saxon and Norman culture in England.
In what ways did Magna Carta support the rise of representative government in England?
It forced the king to seek the advice of the Great Council.
What role did Simon de Montfort play in the development of Parliament?
He led the revolt of nobles and sought the support of the middle class.
Why did the kings of France seek to weaken church power in their lands?
to increase royal power
What are come major events in the early development of representative government in medieval England?
1215 Magna Carta forced the king to seek the advice of the Great Council; 1265 Simon de Montfort asks representatives of middle class to meet with nobles and clergy; 1272-1307 reign of Edward I who divided king's court into three branches
What was Magna Carta?
(means Great Charter) English document that made law supreme power & was cornerstone of constitutional government. Forced king to seek the advice of Great Council & protected liberties of nobles & provided some rights for ordinary people. King could not take property & promised not to sell, refuse, or delay justice. p114
What was Magna Carta?
(means Great Charter) English document that made law supreme power & was cornerstone of constitutional government. Forced king to seek the advice of Great Council & protected liberties of nobles & provided some rights for ordinary people. King could not take property & promised not to sell, refuse, or delay justice. p114
Who was Alfred the Great?
Became ruler of Wessex (871) & was determined to drive Danes (Vikings) from England. He was initially defeated but by 886 weakened Danes signed a treaty of peace. p112
Who was Edward the Confessor?
In 1042 the Danish line had died out and the Anglo-Saxon nobles chose him as their king (of England). He was part Anglo-Saxon and part Norman. p113
Who was William the Conqueror?
When Edward the Confessor died in 1066, Duke William of Normandy claimed the English throne. The Anglo-Saxons refused to recognized him & made Harold of Wessex, king. In a decisive battle, William defeated Harold's army & was crowned King William I of England. p113
Who was Thomas Becket?
Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry II. He refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal courts. Four of the king's knights murdered the archbishop in his cathedral. Henry did penance to appease the church & abandoned attempts to reduce the power of the church. Becket was named a saint. p114
Who was Eleanor of Aquitaine?
Eleanor of Aquitaine was wife of two kings: first to Louis VII of France, & later to Henry II of England. She was one of the most powerful women in Medieval Europe playing an active role in the leadership of France & England. In France, she created a center of medieval culture at the court of Poitiers. p114
Who was Simon de Montfort?
He was a powerful lord who led a revolt of nobles against Henry II in the 1260s. He asked representatives to meet with the nobles and clergy that made up the Great Council. This representative body eventually became the English Parliament. p115
Who was Otto I?
In Germany, feudal lords elected Otto I their king in 936. Otto, a powerful & forceful ruler, became known as Otto the Great. He helped Pope John XII & was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Holy Roman Empire) in 962 p118
Who was Henry III?
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1046-1056. Three different men claimed the papacy during his reign but he elected a German as pope and selected the next three popes. p119
Who was Henry IV?
Emperor of Holy Roman Empire at 5, nobles & church tried to take advantage. He came into conflict with great leader of medieval church, Pope Gregory VII. The struggle between Henry & Gregory reflected the clash between church & state; a continuing issue in Middle Ages. p119
Who was Pope Gregory VII?
One of the great leaders of the medieval church, he believed church was supreme & did not hesitate to use excommunication to resolve conflicts of church & state. He disagreed with Henry IV on the issue of lay investiture. He excommunicated Henry & used nobles to elect another emperor. p119
Who was Frederick Barbarosa?
Frederick I, AKA Frederick Barbarosa (Frederick of the Red Beard) ruled Germany from 1152-1190. He tried to capture Lombard cities but was defeated by the Lombard League which was backed by the pope. p120
Summarize the actions and events that led to Frederick Barbarosa's defeat by the Lombard League.
Frederick seized control of the city-states governments; Frederick destroyed Milan; the city-states formed the Lombard League and defeated Frederick. p120
Why was the issue of lay investiture considered so important by both German emperors and popes?
It represented a conflict over power and authority of spiritual and temporal rules.
What was the issue of lay investiture?
Emperors claim to have the authority to appoint bishops and other church positions. p119
Who was Innocent III?
Strongest of medieval popes ruling 1198 to 1216, he greatly strengthened church. Believing in supreme earthly power of papacy; he felt he had the authority to settle all problems. He used excommunication & interdiction to settle conflicts in Europe. He placed England under interdict in quarrel with King John. p120
Why do you think emperors and popes were unable to cooperate or to build alliances that would have strengthened them both?
Each wanted supreme power.
Why would the pope's blessing strengthen a king's rule?
It would show the king's closeness to the church and might lead to the belief that God favors the king.
How did the practice of primogeniture exclude women or peasants from controlling land?
Land was inherited by the eldest son of a lord or vassal.
How were feudal lords and peasants affected by the principles of chivalry?
The manners of feudal lords were improved, but knights were courteous only to their own class.
What overall effect did Benedict have on the development of monasticism?
He organized a monastic movement and created rules to govern monks' lives (Benedictine Rule).
How was the church's organization similar to that of a centralized government?
It was organized into a hierarchy with the most powerful leader at the top.
What were some of the problems that the church faced in the Middle Ages?
lay investiture (kings and emperors feeling that they could appoint church officials such as bishops), and simony (buying church positions)
Why are the year 1066 significant in English history?
combined Anglo-Saxon and Norman culture in England: 1066 Norman William the Conquerer (William I) defeated Anglo-Saxon Harold in the Battle of Hastings. He introduced Norman culture to England. 1215
Why are the year 1215 significant in English history?
In 1215, a powerful group of nobles joined against King John when he demanded more taxes. He was forced to accept a document called Magna Carta (Great Charter) that protected liberties of nobles, outlined some rights of ordinary people, & reduced power of the king.
How did common law develop in England?
through the verdicts of judges in the royal courts
How did royal power in France and England differ?
With Magna Carta in 1215, English kings were made subject to the law.
Why was Otto's rule different different from the Capetian's in France?
Otto was more interested both in seizing control of Italy and building a strong kingdom in Germany.
Describe the conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket.
Henry II tried to transfer trials of the clergy from church to royal courts. Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to allow this. Four of the king's knights murdered Becket. Henry did penance to appease the church. Becket was named a saint.
Describe the conflict between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.
Henry IV insisted on the right to lay investiture (appointment of church officials by temporal leaders) but Gregory VII disagreed. Gregory excommunicated Henry. Their dispute was finally settled in an agreement called the Concordat of Worms which limited imperial power over the German Church.
Describe the conflict between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.
Henry IV insisted on the right to lay investiture (appointment of church officials by temporal leaders) but Gregory VII disagreed. Gregory excommunicated Henry. Their dispute was finally settled in an agreement called the Concordat of Worms which limited imperial power over the German Church.
Describe the conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket.
Henry II tried to transfer trials of the clergy from church to royal courts. Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to allow this. Four of the king's knights murdered Becket. Henry did penance to appease the church. Becket was named a saint.
How could religious leaders and kings have avoided many wars in the Middle Ages?
by agreeing to separate matters of church and state
Why was it important for kings, emperors, the church and nobles to possess land?
Land ownership created power, authority and sometimes wealth.
How did church officials, such as bishops become involved in feudalism?
The church granted some of the lands as fiefs. Bishops served as feudal lords and vassals.