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255 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic
Guglielmo Marconi
provided a new source of power in transportation
internal cumbustion engine
Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach
made up nearly 80 percent of the European population in the early 1900s
working class
founded the women's social and political union
Emmeline Pankhurst
idea that the prime minister is responsible to the legislative body and not to the executive officer
ministerial responsibility
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple alliance
discovered the first radioactive element, radium
Marie Curie
published major new theories of human behavior in The Interpretation of Dreams
Sigmund Freud
Impressionist painter who sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and sky
Claude Monet
In the Second Industrial Revolution, what led the way to new industrial frontiers?
Sttel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
According to Karl Marx, the _________, or working class, was oppressed by the middle class.
By 1914, trade unions had
bettered both the living and working conditions of the working class.
Although they made up only 5 percent of the population in the early 1900s, which class controlled 30-40 percent of the wealth?
the new elite
______ founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and the Sick in Hamburg, Germany.
Amalie Sieveking
What was the name of the legislative assemble created by Czar Nicholas II?
The alliance between Great Britain, RUssia, and France was known as the
triple entente
According to Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity,
If all materal things disappear out of the universe, time and space would disappear with them.
Symbolists believed that the world was a collection of symbols that
reflected the true reality, which was the individual human mind
FUnctionalism was the idea that
buildings, like the products of machines, should be useful and lack unnecessary ornamentation
the moral responsibility of Europeans to civilize primitive peoples
"white man's burden"
leader of a movement for independence in the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo
Ottoman officer who seized power in Egypt and established a separate Egyptian state
Muhammad Ali
talented ruler who carved out an empire for the Zuhu people
Indian revolt known to the British as the Sepoy mutiny
First War of Independence
group that called for a share in the governing process of India
Indian National COngress
Indian author who worked for human dignity, world peace, and the mutual understanding and union of East and West
Rabindranath Tagore
led the revolt in the French colony of Saint Domingue
Francois Dominique Toussaint Louverture
hailed as one of the "Liberators of South America"
Jose de San Martin
brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including land distribution to the poor
Benito Juarez
Who established the colony of Singapore?
Sir Stamford Raffles
If a colongy was run by _______, local elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials from the mother country
direct rule
Originally sent to Arica to find David Livingstone, Henry Stanley was
hired by King Leopold II of Belgium
The only free states remaining in Africa by 1914 were
Liberia and Ethiopia
Lord Macaulay designed a new school system in India to
train Indian children to serve in the colonial government and army.
_________ set up a nonviolent movement with the aim to force the British to aid the poor and grant independence to India
Mohandas Gandhi
In the Latin AMerican colonial system, who were the mestizos?
The largest group; worked as servants and laborers
_______ joined Jose de San Martin's forces to complete the liberation of Peru
Simon Bolivar
By seizing control of Mexico from Porfirio Diaz, Francisco Madero
opened the door to a wider revolution led by Emiliano Zapata
As a result of the prosperity that came from increased exports, Latin America
witnessed a growth in the middle sectors of Latin American society
conflict resulting from the Chines attempt to blockade Guangzhou to keep out British traders
first Opium War
caused by the failure of the Chinese government to deal with pressing internal economic problems
Tai Ping Rebellion
launched the One hundred days of Reform
Guang Xu
young radical who formed the Revive China Society
Sun Yatsen
China's "last emperor"
Henry Pu Yi
his fleet pressured the Japanese into opening trade relations with the Unitesd States
Commodore Matthew Perry
organization demanding voting rights for women and attention to human rights
Freedom and People's rights movement
practice of Europeans being governed by their own laws while living on Chinese soil
areas where the European states had exclusive trading rights in China
spheres of influence
traveled to Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States to study their governments
Ito Hirobumi
As a result of the Treaty of Nanjing, Britain was
given the island of Hong Kong, among other concessions
Hong Xiuquan leader of the Tai Ping Rebellion viewed himself as
the younger brother of Jesus Christ
_______ proposed the Open Door policy for China
John Hey
The slogan of the _______was "destroy the foreigner."
______ agreed to serve as president of a new Chinese republic after the collapse of the Qing dynasty.
General Yuan Shigai
Under the reign of the young emperor Mutsuhito, Japan
underwent a political transformation known as the Meiji Restoration
What was the result of Japan's vicoty in the war with Russia?
a stunned world was forced to recognize Japan as one of the great powers
The policy of _____ called for China to adopt western techonolgy while retaining their Confucian values and institutions
Who imprisoned Guang Xu and ended all his reform efforts?
Ci Xi
the daimyo governed ____ after the Meiji government seized their lands.
a military draft
assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia
Gavrilo Princip
the spread of ideas to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Great Britian, France, Italy
Allied Powers
systems directed by government agencies in order to mobilize resources for the war effort
planned economies
urged princes in the Middle East to revolt against their Ottoman overlords
Lawrence of Arabia
new name for the Bolsheviks after they seized power
general who guided German military operations
Erich von ludendorff
declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for starting World War I
War Guilt Clause
A nation officially governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations
What was the name of the group that conspired to assassinate Archduke Francis Ferdinand
the Black Hand
In 1914, ____ was considered an act of war
mobilization of a nation's army
the western front was characterized by
trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years
Austria-Hngary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire became known as
the central powers
Why did Admiral Holtzendorff promise Emperor william II "not one American will land on the continent"?
He wanted to convince the emperor to resume unrestricted submarine warfare
_____ were councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
The red secret police, known as the Cheka, began
a red terror campaign to destroy all those who opposed the new regime
The treaty of versailles was
a treaty signed with Germany that many Germans felt was a harsh peace.
France's apporach to peace was guided in large part by
the desire for national security
World War I was a ____, meaning that it involved a complete mobilization of resources and people.
total war
reduced German reparations
Dawes Plan
A period of low economic activity and rising unemployment
economic depression
political philosophy that emphasizes the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
modified capitalist system Lenin used to avoid economic disaster
New Economic Policy
system in which private farms were eliminated and the government owned the land
living space
excluded jews from German citizenship
Nuremberg laws
program that offered leisure time activities to fill the free time of the working class
Kraft durch Freude
James Joyce's famous novel
documentary film of the 1934 Nuremberg Nzai Party rally
The Triumph of the Will
The treaty of Locarno guaranteed
Germany's new western borders with France and Belgium
John Maynard Keynes argued that unemployment
came not from overproduction but from a decline in demand
a ______ state is a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens
How did Benito Mussolini gain the support of the Catholic Church?
He gave the Church money and official recognition
The purpose of Stalin's Five Year Plans was to
transform the USSR from an agricultural into an industrial economy
The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to establish a totalitarian state by
giving the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years
What was the Kristallnacht
it was a destructive Nazi rampage against the Jews
Surrealist _____painted everyday objects but separated them from their normal contexts
Salvador Dali
The literary work of _____ includes Siddhartha and Steppenwolf
Hermann Hesse
WHo was the propaganda minster for Nazi Germany?
Joseph Goebbels
the deliberate mass murder of a particular racial, political, or cultural group
established the modern state of Iran in 1935
Reza Shah Pahlavi
leader of a movement that tried to make all Africans aware of their own cultural heritage
WEB Du Bois
Japanese extremist patriotic organization
Black Dragon Society
leader of the Chinese National Pary after Sun Yatsen
Chiang Kaishek
promoted traditional Confucian values while rejecting excessive individualism of Western captialism
"New Life Movement"
what Chian Kaishek regarded as "a disease of the heart"
"great soul"
government where a select group of people exercises control
cheered by Mexicans as the president who had stood up to the United States
Lazaro Cardenas
After successfully establishing the Republic of Turkey, Kemal Ataturk
introduced many reforms, most of which were kept even after his death
In November 1917, the ____ stated Britains intention to make Palestine the national home of the Jews
Balfour Declaration
Mohandas Gandhi protested British law by
using methosds of civil disobedience, that is, refusing to obey laws considered to be unjust
The ____ gradually developed into vast companies that controlled major segments of the Japanese industrial sector
Who led the People's liberation Army on the Long March?
Mao Zedong
In order to fight the larger Nationalist Army, the Communists
began using guerrilla tactics
Chiang Kaishek did not press for programs that would lead to a redistribution of wealth because
he did not want to lose the support of the rural landed gentry, as well as the urban middle class
President Franklin D Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy
rejected the use of US military force in Latin America
The ___ controlled the major groups within Mexican presidency
Institutional Revolutionary Party
Identy the Mexican national oil company
policy that sought peace and stability by satisfying the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers
Neville Chamberlain thought the agreement reached there meant "peace for our time,"
Munich Conference
used as an excuse for Japanese seizure of Manchuria
"Mukden incident"
unoccupied France, governed by authoritarian regime under German control
Vichy France
German air force
Germany Italy, and Japan
Axis Powers
special strike forces for carrying out Nazi Final SOlution
the slaughter of European civilians, particularly European Jews, by the Nazis
British term for the German air raids
meeting at which the Allies agreed to form a United Nations organization
yalta Conference
Hitler demanded and was given what area in northwestern Czechoslovakia?
Two days after Hitler's invasiona of ____, Britain and France declared war on Germany
Hitler's blitzkrieg or "lightning war," was
a form of attack that used tank divisions supported by air attacks
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese
launched a surprise attack on the US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor
What was the turning point of the war in the Pacific?
the Battle of Midway Island
____ administered the Nazi's Final Solution
Reinhard Heydrich
When the Einsatzgruppen proved to be too slow for the Nazis, they
built special extermination camps in Poland
In order to address lavor shortages during the war, Japan
brought in Korean and Chinese laborers
At the Tehran Conference, Stalin, ROosevelt, and Churchill agreed to
to a partition of postwar Germany
At the Potsdam Conference, Truman demanded ____ throughout Eastern Europe
freely elected governments
author of A day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
author of The Second Sex
Simone de Beauvoir
US President involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis
John F Kennedy
Soviet leader who promoted the growth of heavy industry over consumer goods after World War II
Josef Stalin
Communist leader of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro
First president of France's Fifth Republic
Charles de Gaulle
US president who resumed relations with China after the Vietnam War
Richard Nixon
US president who, beginning in 1964, increased the number of US troops in Vietnam
Lyndon B Johnson
Soviet leader who built the Berlin Wall
Nikita Khrushchev
West German leader responsible for the "economic miracle"
Konrad Adenauer
A civil war in _____ in 1946 contributed to tensions between the Soviet Union and Great Britain
The Marshall Plan was designed to
restore the economic stability of European nations after World War II
US fears abaout the spread of communism were increased ____ became a communist nation in 1949
Which of the following nations was NOT an original member of NATO?
WHich of the following nations was a member of the Warsaw Pact?
When the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik I satellite in 1957, many Americans feared that
the SOviet Union was ahead of the US in the production of missiles
Th Bay of Pigs refers to
a US attempt to overthrow the CUban government
Communist leader ____ initiated the "Prague Spring" with a series of reforms in Czechoslovakia in 1968
Alexander Dubcek
The US senator responsible for the anti-communist movement known as teh "red scare" was
Joseph McCarthy
In 1970, four students at ____ were killed by the Ohio National Guard during an antiwar demonstration
Kent State University
Soviet leader who supported intervention if communism was threatened
Leonid Brezhnev
president who called the Soviet Union an "evil empire"
Ronald Reagan
Soviet leader who initiated perestroika
Mikhail Gorbachev
Russian president who vowed to end the rebellion in Chechnya
Vladimir Putin
American president who supported NATO attacks against Serbia
Bill Clinton
East German leader against whose regime began the demonstrations that ended in the fall of the Berlin Wall
Erich Honecker
nationalized major French banks and industries
Francois Mitterand
canceleld US participation in the 1980 Symmer Olympic Games
Jimmy Carter
leader of Iran when 53 Americans were taken hostage there
Ayatollah Khomeini
resigned from office to avoid Impeachment
Richard Nixon
In political history, the term "detente" refers to
improved relations between the US and the Soviet Union in the 1970's
_____ and _____ weakened the Soviet economy during Brezhnev's leadership.
a weak collective farming system; a corrupt government bureaucracy
One of the most serious problems facing Gorbachev's reforms was
the multiethnic republics
The polish national trade union solidarity was founded by
Lech Walesa
Reforms began in Romania after ____ was removed from power
Nicolae Ceausescu
Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic rejected efforts to creat independent states from the former Yugoslav republics because
he argued that Servian minorities in other republics would be oppressed
one of teh European Union's first goals was teh establishment of
a common European currency
Margaret Thatcher resigned after her plan to ____ was rejected.
replace local property taxes with a national flat rate tax
The North American Free Trade Agreement sought to
establish cooperative trade guidelines between Canada, the US, and MeExico
Voters in ____ chose not to secede from the Canadian union in 1995
nation in which vast new oil reserves were discovered in the 1970s
famous poet from Chile
Gabriela Mistral
nation whose government was overthrown by the Sandinistas
Cuban dictator overthrown by Fidel Castro
Fulgencio Batista
nation placed under a US trade embargo in 1960
Communist nation that supported the Peruvian guerrilla group Shining Path
winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1982
Garbriel Garcia Marquez
nation that suffered years of sever inflation after an "economic miracle"
Latin American leader who declared himself a marxist in December 1961
Fidel Castro
nation formerly ruled by Manuel Noriega
After World War II, many Latin American nations suffered economic difficulties because of
overdependence on foreign nations and a dramatic increase in population
Latin American _____ were strongly influenced by international styles after World War II
art and architecture
Early in the twentieth century, the government of ____ was dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party
What significant event occurred on January 1, 1959?
Cuba's government was overthrown by Casto's forces
Revolutionary leader Che Guevara was killed while fighting in which nation?
The Sandinistas lost power to ____ after free elections in 1990
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro
Working class people supported Juan Peron because he
encouraged the growth of labor unions and increased job benefits
the military conflict over the Falkland Islands 1982 involved
Great Britain and Argentina
General ____ overthrew Salvador Allende to become military dictator of CHile in 1973
Augusto Pinochet
the government of ____ has been heavily influenced by drug cartels and cocain production
nation in which the African National Congress was formed in 1912
South Africa
Israeli prime minister involved in the Camp David Accords treaty
Menachem Begin
President of Tanzania who advocated an "African form of socialism
Julius Nyerere
ruled by terror and repression in Uganda in the 1970s
Idi Amin
location of a brutal war between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes
leader of Ghana when it became first African nation to gain independence from Brtain
Kwame Nkrumah
leader of Iraq who invaded Kuwait
Saddam Hussein
region declared an independent state by the Ibo people during a civil war in Nigeria
Egyptian author of the Arab work Cairo Trilogy
Naguib Mahfouz
president of Egypt during the Suez War
Gamal Abdel nasser
The African National Congress called for armed resistance against the white South African government after the arrest of their leader, ___, in 1962
Nelson Mandela
Most leaders of the newly independent african nations came from
the urban middle class
Pan africanism promotes the view that all
black africans share a common identity
The organization of African unity has contributed to unity among African nations by
settling border disputes
The economies of many African nations have suffered because those nations are forced to import ____ from Western nations like the US
South African bishop ____ won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984
Desmond TUtu
The united nations divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state in
The United Arabic Republic was formed by a union between which two nations?
Egypt and Syria
The Camp David Accords led to a peace treaty between Israel and which nation?
Muslim leaders like the Ayatollah Khomeini opposed the shah of Iran becasue they
felt the shah promoted a culture of greed and materialism
US president at the beginning of the Korean War
Harry Truman
Philippine leader accused of involvement in the killing of a political opponent
Ferdinand Marcos
leader of the Vietminh resistance group
Ho Chi Minh
Nationalist government of china leader who fled to Taiwan
Chiang Kaishek
US general who governed Japan after World War II
Douglas MacArthur
The little red book described
mao Zedong's plans to create a proletarian culture
The Four Olds attacked by the Red Guards were
old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits
The Four Modernizations policy advocated by Deng Xiaoping focused on developments in
industry, agriculture, technology, and defense
The Tiananmen Square demonstrations took place in the Chinese city of
The 38th parallel marked the boundary between
North and South Korea
In the early 1970s, the Chinese government decided to improve relations with the US because
China faced a serious security threat from the Soviet Union
The peoplel of Pakistan are primarily members of the _____religion
The republic of Indonesia was formerly a colony of which nation
the Netherlands
The term zaibatsu refers to
the large business conglomerates in Japan
Which of the following nations is NOT one of the ASian tigers
US president involved in the founding of the United Nations
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
author of Silent Spring
Rachel Carson
nation in which civil war led to over one million deaths by starvation in th 1980s
gases used in aerosol cans and refrigeration equipment
one of several nations that are permanent members of the United Nations SEcurity Council
author of Creating Alternative futures
Hazel Henderson
military mission in this nation led to questions about the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping forces
gas responsible for the greenhouse effect
carbon dioxide
American educator active in ecouraging existence of nongovernmental organizations
Elise Boulding
one of the first astronauts on the moon
Neil Armstrong
The book Silent Spring gave rise to a new field of science called
Tropical rain forests cover only 6 percent of the earth's surface, but they support ____ of the world's plant and animal species
50 percent
Acid rain results from
the mixture of sulfur produced by factories with moisture in the air
The Exxon Valdez was involved in
a major oil spill in Alaska
A major environmental conference known as the Earth Summit was held in 1992 in which city
Rio de Janeiro
American astronauts first landed on the moon in which year?
According to estimates by the United nations, the world's population could reach _____ by the year 2050
9 billion
The term "green revolution" refers to
the development of new strains of grain that have higher yields
In 1986, a nuclear explosion at ____ released radiation that killed hundreds of people
The United Nations was founded in 1945 in which city?
New York City