Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Voltaire
Wrote "Candide"
Spread philosophers' ideas in Europe
Hobbes
Wrote "Levanthan"
People are born evil
Social contract: gov't's job is to protect us
Locke
"Treatises on Government"
Born "tabula rosa"
Born with natural rights
Social contract: is gov't fails in protecting us, we can begin our own gov't
Rousseau
"Social Contract"
Born basically good
Gov't's job is to provide happiness
Montesquieu
"Spirit of Laws"
A gov't that is too centralized is corrupt; should be divided into LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, and JUDICIAL branches
Immanuel Kant
"Critique of /Practical Reason/Pure Reason/Judgment"
Most influential philosopher of enlightenment
J.S. Bach
Set classical standard
Beethoven
Longer, fewer symphonies
Louis XVI
Attempt to flee seen as turning point and begin of radical stage of revo.
Slow to accept reforms of N.A.
Marie Antoinette
Tried to flee with Louis XVI
Hated for extravagance
Robespierre
Led gov't in battling counterrevolution
Embraced Rousseau's idea of good will
Tolerant
Chief leader of Reign of Terror
Marat
Helped launch Reign of Terror
Represented France at N.C.
Napoleon
Bureaucratic Reforms
Reforms most of Europe
Champion of Enlightenment
Takes part in coup to overthrow F directore; delcared First Consul
Admiral Nelson
Died at Battle of Trafalgar
Arguably nat'l hero of GB
Alexander I
Represented Russia at Congress of Vienna
Castereagh
Represented England at Congress of Vienna
Metternich
Represented Austria at Congress of Vienna
Conservative system remained after his death
Sought to supress revo. ideas
Urged monarchs to opposed many freedoms
Hardenburg
Represented Prussia at Congress of Vienna
Tallyrand
Represented France at Congress of Vienna
Basic 4 Beliefs of the Enlightenment
Religion (deism-"god is a clockmaker," , Cosmopolitan (Equality), Reason, Progress (Got to admit it's getting better, getting better all the time)
Estates General
Legislative assembly of different estates (classes/castes)
To prepare, Louis XVI had all 3 estates prepare cahiers of complaints
Stressed over votine
National Assembly
First step towards writing constitution: assemble issued Declaration of Rights...
Voted to take over and sell church lands to pay off debt
Church under state control
Limited monarchy
Enlightenment supporterd applauded
Sans Coullotes
Poorest members of third estate
Left-wing
The Directory
5 men led
Middle class and bourgeoise dominated
Weak but dictorial
The Committee of Public Safety
Almost absolute power
Required all to contribute to preparation for war
Napoleon Battles: Egypt
Strategically a failure
Rosetta Stone discovered
Napoleon Battles: Battle of Trafalgar
First loss, to Admiral Nelson
Napoleon Battles: Battle of Austerlitz
Defeats Austria and Prussia
Makes France dominant power in Europe
Napoleon Battles: Battle of Jena
Defeats Prussia
Ends Holy Roman Empire
Napoleon Battles: Peninsula War
Invades Spain
Spanish fight guerlla war; France never fully conquers and eventually withdraws
Napoleon Battles: Invading Russia
Overextends military; forced to abdicate
Sent to exile on island Elba (off Africa)
Napoleon Battles: Escaping from Exile
Returns to France
Defeated at Waterloo (migraine)
Sent to permanent exile on island of St. Helena
Napoleon France Reforms
Highest taxes, stopped corruption, employment, schools, laws, bank of France, large draft
Napoleon Conquered Countries Reforms
Written constitution, freedom of religion, middle class employment, male property owners had right to vote, improved infrastructure, abolished feudalism, reformed bureaucracies and judicial systems
Congress of Vienna Outcomes
Restoration of monarchies, France lost only a little territory, created balance of power in Europe
Revolution of 1848
Discontent was hightened by recession; rebellions blocked Paris; Louis Napoleon created second republic; 'here and there' changes
Sonata Style
Primary melody, Transition, Secondary melody, Klosing
Concerto
Sole instrument
Symphony
*Beethoven*
Extended orchestrael composition commonly with four movements