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206 Cards in this Set

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government where the power of the crown unchecked.
absolute monarchy
another name for the age of monarchs.
age of absolutism
strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600's.
Spain
was both the holy roman emperor and the king of spain
Charles v
dynasty of Charles v and Phillip 2
Hapsburg
when Charles v divided his empire his son Phillip 2 became
king of Spain
strongest monarch during Spanish Supremacy.
Phillip 2
Phillip 2 and other absolute monarch believed they were kings.
Divine Right
the idea that royal power is granted by God
Divine rights of the Kings
he used wealth from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe
Phillip 2
Phillip 2 saw Spain as the defender of the
catholic faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemy of the Catholicism
Phillip 2
Phillip 2 attempted to force all non Cathlics to
covert or leave Spain
was used as a reign of terror to extract all the non catholic elements from Spain
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe
American colonies
Phillip sent it to invade England
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500's France was torn by religious conflict between
Catholics and Huguenots
French protestant Calvinists
Huguenots
First bourbon king
henry 6th
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry 6th
Gave French protestants religious freedom in 1598
Edict of Nantes
Real ruler during the reign of Louisx111
Cardinal Richelieu
involved catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants
Cardinal Richelieu
was trigger by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants
30 years war
started over religion ended up over the balance of powers
30 years war
ended the 30 years war
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace of Westphalia
Louis x1v minister of France
Colbert
A tax on imports
protective tariff
sun king ruled France from 1643 to 1715
Louis x1v
he weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his palace
Louis x1v
Strongest French monarch
Louis X1v
In 1685 Louis x1v revoked the
Edict of Nates
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from domesticating
Balance of power
War fought to keep Louis X1v's grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the war of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
war of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Louis 10th
Phillip 2nd's English rival
Elizabeth 1
Ruled England from 1558 TO 1603
Elizabeth 1
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603 last Tudor monarch
Elizabeth 1
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings
James 1
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings
God
Succeeded James 1 as King of England
Charles 1
His reign ended in England's civil war
charles 1
It was fought over who should rule England monarch or parliament
English civil war
Those who supported Charles 1 in the English civil war
Cavaliers
Those who supported parliament in the English civil war
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly (religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in the English civil war
Oliver Cronwell
The English Parliament tried and executed
Charles 1
The house of teh commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called
common wealth
Cromwell drove out parliament and set up a
military dictatorship
Name for cromwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced
Puritan moral code
Cromwell didn't tolerate open worship for
Catholic's
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as lord protector of England but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by
Military coup
He was invited by parliament to come back from exile and become king
Charles 2nd
the return of Charles 2nd as king of England
Restoration
restoration date
a.d. 1660
The restoration gave england a
constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles 2nd
James 2nd
English feared James 2nd would make catholism the
State religion
name for the bloodless deposing of James 2nd
Glorious revolution
William and Mary were given joint rule of England after the glorious revolution but they first had accepted the
Enlgish bill of rights
The enlgish bill of rights made sure that parliament had more power than the ruler and established
limited monarchy
date of the glorious revolution
a.d. 1688
was selected by leading German princes but in reality didn't have much power
Holy roman emperor
allowed maria theresa to inherit the throne of austria
Pragmatic sanction
maria Theresa's dynasty
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled purssia during the age of monarchs
hohenzollern
Centralized prussian gov mad prussian army the most efficent fighting force in Europe
Frederick william 1
most powerful ruler in prussian history
frederick 2 the great
he rejected the pragmatic sanction and started the war of austrian succession
frederick 2nd the great
maria theresa keeps the throne of austria austria loses silesia
treay of aix-la-chapelle
starts as a struggle between austria and prussia becomes a struggle between england and france.
Seven yaers war
Name of the seven years war in america
french and indian war
in 1650 russia was insolated and
backward country
title of the russian ruler
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/westernize russia
Peter the great
Peter the great was an
absolute monarch
Peter fought the swedes and the turks to gain a
warm water port
Peter the great built the new capital of russia
St. Petersburg
she followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing western ideas and expanding russia's borders
Cathrine the great
Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries
enlightenment
The enlightenment celebrated the powers of
reason
enlightenment thinkers promoted religious
toleration
englightenment thinkers sough to construct gov free of
tyranny
enlightenment thinkers believed sll problems could be solved with
reason
The enlightenment was prompted by the 1500's 1600's
Scientific revolution
Sun is the center of the solar system
Helicentric Theory
He devoloped the heliocentric theory
copernicus
he developed a telescope and supported the helicentric theory
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other method
Galileo galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the
catholic church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
johannes kepler
his discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyones else's
Isaac newton
he laid the foundation for the scientific theories taht susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac newton
Newton developed the theory of
gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
natural laws
newtons discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
he developed calculus
Isaac newton
Hobbes,locke,rousseau were all considered
Social contract theorists
Because thomas hobbes believed governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness he believed they had
never had the right to revolt
form of government advocated by thomas hobbes
Absolute monarchy
He believed people had natural rights to life liberty and property
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of government was a
social contract
John locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected they had the
right to revolt
john locke wrote in defense of the
Glorious Revolution
French thinkers of the enlightenment
philosophes (not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance (wrote candide)
Voltaire
He combined englightenment thinking into and encyclopedia
Diderot
banned Diderot's encyclopedia
Catholic church
Diderot was for his writings in the Encyclopedia
Imprisoned
advocated a free economy in the wealth of nations
adam smith
name for complete free market economy (leave it alone
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by seperating the power of governments into legislative executive and judical branches
Montesquieu
Criticized the englighenment's excessive emphasis on reason he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas
salons
He believed that you should set aside traditional beliefs and experiment. early proponent of the scientific method
Francis bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which can not be proved, and in the search for truth you should start not with faith but with doubt
Rene descartes
The only thing descartes found that he could not doubt was his
Own existence
I think therefore i am
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
Total skeptic
David Hume
He denied there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing can cause another, denied knowledge of cause and effect
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Methaphysics
Kant believed that things that can not be percieved in Cannot be known
expierence
John locke believed the mind to be a
tabula rasa (blank Slate)
religion based on reason and natural law the englightenments religion
Deism
Belief that god started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone
Diesm
Some people reacted to the engilghenment and did not believe that could explain the universe
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
Enlightened despots
When britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the french and indian war the colonies
reacted
Because the american colonists believed they were being taxed without representation and thus denied their natural rights they
declared there indepence
created a government with Motesquieu's seperation of the powers and federal system
u.s. constitution
governmental power is divided between a central government and regional governments
federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and deomcratic movements of the 19th century
Fernch revolution
Name for frances social classes
Estates
King of france at the beginning of the french revolution
Louis 16th
first estate
catholic clergy
Second estate
noblility
Bourgeoisie artisan's and peasants
third estate
middle class
Bourgeoisie
Large gap between the rich and poor heavy tax burden on the third estate first and second estate don'ot pay taxes. Elightenment ides of freedom and equality growth of the middle class and wide spread
causes of the french revolution
In 1789 Louis 16th called the estates general because he needed to
raise money
upper two estates wanted to vote as
estates
third estate wanted to vote as
delegates
Louis xv1th refused the third estates request for a
mass meeting (voting as delegates)
third estate declared itself to be the
national convention
Members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed
tennis court oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly
Louis 16th
Ordered swiss troops to paris
louis 16th
French royal prison attacked by parisians to defend the national assembly
Bastille
symbolic beginning of the french revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Voted to end special privileges of nobility and clergy
National Assembly
National assembly guaranteed freedom of speech press and religion proclaimed all male citizens were equal but didn't grant rights to women
declaration of rights of man and of the citizens
in 1791 the national assembly created a
Limited constitutional monarchy
Working class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the french revolution
sans culottes
extreme radicals who demanded true democracy
Jacobins
Unpopular queen of France
Marie antionette
national assembly declared war on
austria
seized control of assembly removed king from office (french revolution)
Jacobins
jacobins killed people they claimed were
Countrer revolutionaries
called by Radicals to rewrite french constitution
National Convention
National convention abolished monarchy and declared france a
republic
Convicted of treason and executed by the national convention
Louis 16th
During the french revolution european monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against france
Because of threats from within and without the convention formed the
committee of public safety
Jacobin became the head of the committee began .(500,000 people arrested 40,000 guillotined
reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy
Mass moblization
Members of the convention turned on him because they feared for their own satfety. he was guillotined along with many of his followers
Robespierre
robespierre's death ended the
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
Bourgeoisie
Conservative government set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror
directory
Put in the command of france's army by the directory
Napolean
Seized power from the directory in a coup'd etat
Napolean
Quick over throw of government by a small group
Coup d' etat
as first consul of the french republic napolean assumed
Dictorial powers
Used soldiers to restore order in France
Napolean
Made the law clear and consistent in France
Napoleanic code
Bonaparte became emperor Napolean1 by
the will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empier to include most of
Europe
British admiral who defeated napolean at the battle of Trafalgar
Horatio nelson
Because of his defeat at the battle of Trafalgar napolean gave up on
invading britain
napolean tried to keep goods out of
european ports
napoleon invaded it because it refused to stop selling good to britain
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions
Napoleon's invasion of russia
tactic used by russians against napolean
scorched earth
On retreat from russia napoleon lost
4/5 of his troops
Grand alliance defeats napoleon at leipzig germany
Battle of nations
After the battle of nations the Grand alliance took paris and exiled napoleon to
Elba
napoleon escaped elba and upon returning to france
won widespread support
napoleons brief comeback
the 100 days
napoleons final defeat to britain and prussia
waterloo
after waterloo napoleon was exiled to
st helena
date of waterloo
a.d.1815
Napoleons lasting influence was his soldiers spread the ideals of the across europe
French revolution
After the defeat of napoleon it was held to creat a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
congress of vienna
leading figure at the congress of vienna
metternich