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209 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs
Age of Abosolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and 1600s
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Philip II became
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver)from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as the defender of the
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism.(Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements form Spain
Spanish Inquisition
this source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe
American colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European Power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500's, France was torn by religious conflict between
catholics &huguenots
French protestant calvinists
huguenots
first bourbon king
henry of Navarre/henry IV
established the edict nantes
henry IV
gave french protestants religious freedom in1598
edict of nantes
real ruler during the reign of louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
involved catholic france in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of bohemian protestants.
thirty years war
started over religion ended up over the balance of power
Thirty years war
Ended the 30 years war
Peace of Westphalia
Made france the strongest country in Europe
peace of wertphalia
Louis XIV Minister of finanace
colbert
a tax on imports
protective tariff
sun king ruled france from 1643 to 1715
Louis XIV
he weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his place
Louis XIV
Strongest French monarch
Louis XIV
in 1685 Louis XIV revoked the
Edict of Nantes
Strongest Nation in Europe during the 1600s
France
Small nations band together to deep a strong nation form dominating
Balance of Power
War fought to keep Louis XIVs grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the war of spanish succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philip II's english rival
Elizabth I
Ruled England form 1558 to 1603
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the divine Right of kings
JamesI
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed monarchs were only answerable to
God
Succeeded James I as king of Kngland
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England:Monarch or Parliment
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil war
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in the English civil war
Roundheads
Roundhead were mainly (religion)
Puritans
Led Parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
The english Parliament tried and executed
Charles I
The house of commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a
Puritan moral code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord protector of england, but when england tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a
Military coup
He was invited by parliament to come back from exile and become king
Charles Ii
The return of Charles II as king of england
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to charles II
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution buy they first had to accept the
English Bill of Rights
the english bill of rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established
limited monarchy
date of the glorious revolution
A.D 1688
Was selected by leading german princes buy in reality did not have much power
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa's dynasty
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of monarchs
Hohenzollern
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe
Frederick william I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick II (the Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Frederick II (the great)
Maria Theresa keep the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria and Prussia becomes a struggle between
England and France
Seven Years war
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and
backward country
title of the Russian ruler
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an
absolute monarch
peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a
Warm water port
Peter the great built the new capital of Russia
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead f Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of
Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious
Toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sought to construct a government free of
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the (1500s and 1600s)
Scientific revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System
Helicentric theory
He developed the Heliocentric theory
Copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory
Galilieo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that subsquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
Natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
Mechanical
He developed Calculus
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau were all considered
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they
Never had the right to revolt
Form of government advocated by Thomas Hobbes
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a
Social Contract
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected, they had the
right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the
Glorious Revolution
French thinkers of the enilightenment
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance (wrote Candide)
Voltaire
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that subsquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
Natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
Mechanical
He developed Calculus
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau were all considered
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they
Never had the right to revolt
Form of government advocated by Thomas Hobbes
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a
Social Contract
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected, they had the
right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the
Glorious Revolution
French thinkers of the enilightenment
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance (wrote Candide)
Voltaire
he combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopdia
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia
Catholic Church
Diderot was for his writings in the Encyclopedia
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone)
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believe people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific
Francis bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his
own existence
"i think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
Total skeptic
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause and effect
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in cannot be known
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a
tabula rasa(blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone
Deism
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believe that could explain the universe
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
Enlightened Despots
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies
reacted
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they
Declared their independence
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system
U.S. constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes
Estates
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly
Bastille
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution
Storming of the Batille
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime)
National Assembly
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen"
In 1791 the National Assembly created a
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution
Sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy"
Jacobins
Unpopluar Queen of France
Marie Antoninette
National Assembly declared war on
Austria
Seized control of Assembly, removed king form office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins
Jacobins killed people they claimed were
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution Europeans monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin that became the head of the Committee of Public Saftey
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined)
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre's death ended the
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror
Bourgeoisie
Conservative government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror
Directory
Put in command of France's armies by the Directory
Napoleon
Sized power form the Directory in a Coup d' etat
Napoleon
Quick overthrow of government by a small group
Coup d' etat
As first Consoul of the French Repubic Napoleon assumed
Dictatorial Powers
Used soldiers to restore order to France
Napoleon
Made the law clear and consistent in France
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar
Horatio Nelson
Because of his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on
Invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British good out of
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions
Napoleon's invasion of Russia
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon
Scorched-Earth
On retreat form Russia Napoleon lost
4/5 of his troops
Grnd Alliance defeats the Napoleon at Leipzig Germany
Battle of Nations
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to
Elba
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France
won widespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback
the 100 days
Napoleons final defeat to Britain and Prussia
Waterloo
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to
St.Helena
Date of Waterloo
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the across Europe
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Confress of Vienna
Metternich