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209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Was both the Holy Roman emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Phillip II.
When Charles V divided his empire his son Philip II became ____ __ _____.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by _____ ______.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Diving Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold and silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as the defender of the _______ _______.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip attempted to force all non-Catholics to _____ or _____ _____.
convert or leave Spain.
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-Catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by religious conflict between ________ and __________.
Catholics and Huguenots.
French Protestant Calvinists
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants
Thirty Years War
Started over religion; ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
A tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
In 1685, Louis XIV revoked the ____ __ _____
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Last Tudor Monarch
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to _____.
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War.
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads were mainly ______. (religion)
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed _______.
Charles I.
The House of Commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the ______________.
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a ______ ___________.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a _______ _____ _____.
Puritan moral code.
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for ________.
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England, but when England, tired of strict Puritan ways, he was deposed by a ______ _____.
Military coup.
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England.
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a ______ _____________.
Constitutional monarchy.
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the _______ _________.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had to accept the _______ ____ __ ______.
English Bill of Rights.
The English Bill of Rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established _______ _______.
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
A.D. 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria.
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa' dynasty.
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick II (the Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succesion
Frederick II (the Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria and Prussia becomes a struggle between England and France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and ___________ __________.
backward country.
Title of the Russian ruler.
czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an __________ __________.
absolute monarch.
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a ____ ______ _______.
warm water port.
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia- __________.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Catherine the Great
Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ______.
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious ________.
Enlightenment thinkers sought to construct government free of ______.
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with __________.
The Enlightenment was prompted by the ________ ________. (1500s and 1600s)
Scientific Revolution.
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Heliocentric theory
He developed the Heliocentric theory.
He developed a telescope and supported the Heliocentric theory.
Probably more responsible for the development of the scientific method than any other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the _______ _______.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that subsequently revolutionized the world.
Isaac Newton
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's.
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of _____.
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by _________ _________.
natural laws.
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as ________.
He developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau were all considered ________ ______ _______.
social contract theorists.
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they ______ ____ ___ _____ __ _____.
never had the right to revolt.
Form of Government advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty ad property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of government was a ________ ______.
social contract.
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected, they had the _____ __ ____.
right to revolt.
John Locke wrote in defense of the _____ ______.
glorious revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. (wrote Candide)
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopedia.
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was _________ for his writings in the Encyclopedia.
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith.
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez faire.
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct.
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
he believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his ______ _______________.
own existence.
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
A denial of the possibility of knowledge.
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis fro knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause and effect.
David Hume
he believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in ___________, cannot be known.
John Lock believed the mind to be a ____ ______ (_____ ______)
Tabula rasa (blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Some people reacted to Enlightenment and did not believe that _________ _____ could explain the universe.
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
Enlightened Despots
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies _______.
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they ____ _____ ____________.
declared their independence.
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution.
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle Class
Large gap between the rich and the poor. Heavy tax burden on the Third Estate. First and Second Estate don't pay taxes. Enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality. Growth of the middle class.
Causes of French Revolution.
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _______ _________ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to ______ ______.
raise money.
Upper two estates wanted to vote as ______.
Third Estate wanted to vote as ________.
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate's request for a ______ ________ (voting as delegates).
Mass Meeting
The Third Estate declared itself to be the __________ _________.
National Convention.
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed.
Tennis Court Oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the Naional Assembly.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility and Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"
In 1791, the National Assembly created a ______ ________ ________.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy."
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on ________.
Seized control of Assembly, removed king from office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins killed people they claimed were _______-_____________.
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Convetnion
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a _______.
Convicted of treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing hte spread of the revolution to their countries.
Allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the __________ of ______ ______.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobins became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the _______ of ______. (500,000 people arrested; 40,000 guillotined.)
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invaded armies.
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre's death ended the _______ of ______.
Reign of Terror.
Took control of th Convention afterthe Reign of Terror.
Conservative government set up by the Convention after the end o the Reign of Terror.
Put in command of France's armies by the Directory.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d' etat.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d' etat
As first Consul of the French republic Napoleon assumed _____ _______.
dictatorial powers.
Used soldiers ot restore order to France.
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoeonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by ___ ____ __ ____ ________.
the will of the people.
Naapoleon expanded his empire to include most of _______.
British Admiral wo defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat at the Bttle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on _________ ________.
invading Britain.
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of _______ _____.
European ports.
Napoleon invaded ________ because it refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
On retreat from rusia Napoleon lost ___ of his troops.
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig, Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the GAND Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _____.
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France, he ___ _______ ______.
won widespread support.
Napoleon's brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon's final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
After Waterloo, Napoleon was exiled to ________.
St. Helena.
Date of Waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the _______ _______ across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve teh peace.
congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.