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209 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Philip II became King of Spain.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy.
Philip II
Philip II and the other absolute monarchs believe they were kings of Divine Right.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as he defender of the Catholic Faith.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestant, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-catholic elements from Spain.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It;s defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by religious conflict between Catholics & Huguenots
Catholics & Huguenots
French protestant Calvinits.
Huguenots
First Bourbon King.
Henry of Navarre/ Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes.
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII.
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended he 30 years war.
Peace of westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe.
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIX Minister of Finance.
Colbert
A tax on imports.
Protective tariff
Sun king ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened he power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the edict of Nantes.
Edict of nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s
France
Small nation band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of power
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power.
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of French and Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin an created class conflict.
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to God.
God
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war.
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War.
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War.
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly Puritans. (religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English parliament tried and executed Charles I.
Charles I
The House of Commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the commonwealth.
Commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set u a military dictatorship.
Military Dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship.
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a Puritan moral Code.
Puritan moral code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for Catholics.
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England, but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed b a Military coup.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England.
Restoration
Restoration date.
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a Constitutional monarchy.
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the State Religion.
State Region
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William & Mar were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the English Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Right made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established limited monarchy
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria.
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa'dynasty/
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Hohenzollern
Centralized Prussia Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History.
Frederick II (The Great)
He rejected the pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession.
Frederick II (The Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria & Prussia becomes a struggle between England & France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America.
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and backward country.
backward country
Title of the Russian ruler.
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/ Westernize Russia.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an absolute monarch.
Absolute monarch
Peter fought the swedes and the Turks to gain a warm water port.
warm water port
Peter the Great build the new capital of Russia St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movement of the 17th & 18th centuries.
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of Reason.
Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious toleration.
Toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sought to construct government free of tyranny.
Tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with reason.
Reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the Scientific Revolution (1500s & 1600s).
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Heliocentric theory
He developed the Heliocentric theory.
Copernicus
He developed a telescope an supported the Heliocentric theory.
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the Catholic Church.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's.
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that subsequently revolutionized the world.
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of Gravity.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by natural laws.
Natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as mechanical.
mechanical
He developed Calculus.
Issac Newton
Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau were all considered social contract theorists.
Social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they never had the right to revolt.
never had the right to revolt
Form of Government advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Governments was a Social Contract.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were NOT protected, they had the Right to revolt.
Right to Revolt
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophers (not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. (were Candide).
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopidia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was imprisoned for his writings in the Encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocate a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it or leave it).
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive, judicial branches.
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct.
Rousseau
Meeting for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his own existence.
own existance
I think therefore I am"
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge Skepticism.
Skepticism
Total skeptic.
David Hume.
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in experience in cannot be known.
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
John Locke believed the mind to be a Tabula rasa (blank slate).
Tabula rasa (blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believed that reason alone could explain the universe.
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
Enlightenment Despots
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies reacted.
reacted
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they declared their independence.
declared their independence.
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
Estates
King of France's at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Nobility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle class.
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First & Second Estate don't pay taxes, Enlightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread.
Causes of the French Revolution
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to raise money.
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as Estates.
Estates
Third Estate wanted to vote as delegates.
delegates
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate's request for a Mass Meeting (voting as delegates)
Mass Meeting (voting as delegates)
The Third Estate declared itself to be the Nation Assembly.
National Assembly
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed.
Tennis court oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Bastille.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly.
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen."
In 1791 the National Assembly created a Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy."
Jacobins
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on Austria.
Austria
Seized control of Assembly, removed king of office. (French Revolution).
Jacobins
Jacobins killed people they claimed were Counter-revolutionaries.
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French constitution.
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a Republic.
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by National Convection.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries allied against France.
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety.
Committee of Public Safety.
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the Reign of Terror. (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined.
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass mobilization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre's death ended the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Bourgeoisie
Conservative Government set up by the Convection after the end of the Reign of Terror.
Directory
Put in Command of France's armies by the Directory.
Napoleon
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d' etat.
Napoleon.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d' etat
As first Cosul of the French Republic Napoleon assumed Dictatorial powers.
Dictatorial powers
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Napoleon
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by The will of the people.
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of Europe.
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson
Because of his defeat at the Bttle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on invading Britain.
Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of European ports.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
Scorcehd-earth.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost 4/5 of his troops.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Lepzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance tooks Paris and exiled Napoleon to Elba.
Elba
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France won widespread support.
won widespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon's final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
Waterloo.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena.
St. Helena
Data of Waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldies spread the ideals of the French Revolution across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.
Metternich