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205 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for he age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became _____.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy.
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by____.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to_____.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims, etc).
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to_____.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-Catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
Its defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by religious conflict between____.
Catholics and Huguenots.
French Protestant Calvinists.
Huguenots.
First Bourbon King.
henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII.
Cardinal Richelieu.
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu.
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian Protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War.
Ended the 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia.
Made the strongest country in Europe.
Peace of Westphalia.
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
Colbert
A tax on imports.
Protective Tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the___.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nations band together to keep a strong nation from domination.
Balance of Power
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power.
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Succession.
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of Utrecht.
Broke French Treasury and military power.
War of Spanish Succession.
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict.
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to____.
God
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly____. (religion)
Puritans
Led parliaments army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed____.
Charles I
The House of commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the____.
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a____.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a ___
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for____.
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England, but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a ____.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a ___.
Constitutional monarchy.
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the____.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the ____.
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established_____.
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution.
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa's dynasty
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Hohenzollern.
Centralized Prussian Govt. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian history
Frederick II (the Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession.
Frederick II (the Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria and Prussia becomes a struggle between England and France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America.
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and ____.
Backward country.
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and _____.
backward country
Title of the Russian ruler.
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia.
Peter the Great.
Peter the Great was an___.
absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a _____.
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia_____.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ____.
Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious___.
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sought to construct govt. free of __.
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with___.
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the ____(1500s and 1600s)
Scientific Revoluton
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Heliocentric theory
He developed the Heliocentric theory.
Copernicus.
He developed a telescope and supported the Heliocentric theory.
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual.
Galileo
Galileo was force to recant by the____.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's.
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of_____.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by___.
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as____.
mechanical
He developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau were all considered______.
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they _____.
never had the right to revolt.
Form of Government advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to Life, liberty, and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Govt. was a ___.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were NOT protected, that had the ___.
right to revolt.
John Locke wrote in defense of the____.
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. Wrote Candide.
Voltaire.
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that subsequently revolutionized the world.
Isaac Newton
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopedia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Dederot was _____ for his writings in the Encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone)
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct.
Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
he believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon.
He believed you should dobt everything which cannot be proved and in the search for truth you shouldn't start with faith but doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he couldn't doubt was his______.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question of all ideas.
Skepticism
A dial of the possibility of knowledge.
Skepticism
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that can't be perceived in ____ cannot be known.
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a______.
Tabula rasa (blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believe that _______ could explain the universe.
Reason alone.
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
Enlightened Despots.
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies______.
reacted.
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed w/o their representation and thus denied their natural rights they_______.
declared their independence.
Created a govt.k with Montesqieus's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central govt. and regional govt.'s.
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XIV
First estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate
Nobility
Third Estate
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Middle Class
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First and Second Estate don't pay taxes, Enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality, growth of the middle class wide spread.
Causes of French Revolution
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the ___ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General.
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to ___.
raise money
Upper 2 estates wanted to vote as ___.
Estates.
Third Estate wanted to vote as___.
Delegates.
Louis XVI refused the third Estate's request for a ____.
Mass Meeting (voting as delegates).
The third Estate declared itself to be the____.
National Assembly
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed.
Tennis court oath.
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI.
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI.
French Royal Prison, attacked by Partisans to defend the National Assembly.
Bastille.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility and Clergy. (old regime)
National Assembly.
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but didn't grant rights to women.
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen."
In 1791 the National Assembly created a ____.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy".
Jacobins.
Jacobins killed people they claimed were ____.
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a _____.
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries ______.
allied against France.
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the ____.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Robespierre.
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ______. (500,000 arrested, 40,000 guillotined)
Reign of Terror.
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Mobilization.
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Mobilization.
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was gillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre.
Robespierres's death ended the _______.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Directory.
Conservative govt. set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror.
Directory.
Put in Command of France's armies by the Directory.
Napoleon.
Seized powere from the Directory in a Coup d' etat.
Napoleon.
Quick overthrow of govt. by a small group.
Coup d' etat.
As first Consul of the French Rpublic Napoleon assumed ______.
Dictatorial powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Napoleon.
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic Code.
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by ______.
The will of the people.
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ______.
Europe.
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat at the BAttle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on ____.
Invading Britain.
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of ____.
European ports.
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
Scorched-Earth.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost ____.
4/5 of his troops.
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _____.
Elba.
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France _____.
won widespread support.
Napoleon's brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon's final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
Waterloo.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to _____.
St. Helena.
Date of Waterloo.
1815 AD
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the ___ across Europe.
French Revolution.
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna.
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.
Metternich.