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209 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500's and early 1600's.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Empire and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Phillip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became____.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy.
Phillip II
Phillip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by_____.
Divine rights
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine rights of Kings
He used wealth (gold and silver)
from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Phillip II
Phillip II saw Spain as the defender of the____.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism.
Phillip II
Phillip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-Catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American colonies
Phillip !! sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Span's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500's, France was torn by religious conflict between______.
Catholics and Huguenots
French Protestant Calvinists.
Huguenots
First Bourbon King.
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes.
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1588.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII.
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the Protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian Protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the Thirty Years War.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe.
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of finance.
Colbert
A tax on imports.
Protective tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch.
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the___.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's.
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power.
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict.
Louis XIV
Phillips II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to____.
God
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war.
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
England civil war
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War.
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in English Civil War.
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly___.(religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed _____..
Charles I
The house of commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the__________.
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a_______.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship.
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a____.
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for___.
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England, but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a ____.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II a King of England.
Restoration
Restoration date.
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a___.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the____.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary were joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the ______.
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established_____.
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution.
AD 1688
Date of the Glorious Revolution.
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa dynasty
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs
Hohenzollern
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe
Fredrick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Fredrick II
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Fredrick II
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia
treaty of Alx-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria and Prussia becomes a struggle between England and France
Seven years war
Name of seven years war in America
French and Indian war
in 1650 was an isolated and
backward country
title of russian leader
Czar
czar who worked on modernize/westernize russia
peter the great
peter the great was an
absolute monarch
peter fought the swedes and turks to gain a
warm water port
peter the great built the new capital of russia
saint petersburg
she followed the lead of peter the great in embracing western ideas and expanding russia's borders
catherine the great
intellectual movement of 17th and 18th centuries
enlightenment
the enlightenment celebrated the powers of
reason
enlightened thinkers promoted religious
toleration
enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of
tyranny
enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
the enlightenment was prompted by the
Scientific rvolution
sun in the center of the solar system
helicentric theory
he developed the heliocentric theory
copernicus
he developed a telescope and supported the helicentric theory
galileo
probably more responsible for the development of scientific metho than any other individual
galileo galilel
galileo was forced to recant by the
catholic church
demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
johannes kepler
his discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
issac newton
he laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac newton
newton developed the theory of
gravity
newton discovered the universe is governed by
natural laws
newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
he developed calculus
isaac newton
hobbes and locke and rousseau were all considered
social contact theorists
because thomas hobbes beleived
never had the right to revolt
form of government by thomas hobbes
absolute monarchy
he believed people had natural rights to life, liberty and property
john locke
john locke believed the foundation of government was a
social contact
john locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected
right to revolt
john locke wrote in defence of the
glorious revolution
french thinkers of the enlightenment
philosophes
Philosophe who campainged against intolerance
voltaire
he combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopedia
diderot
banned Diderot's encyclopedia
catholic church
diderot was ----- for his writings in the encyclopedia
imprisoned
advocated a free market economy in the wealth of nations
adam smith
name for complete free market economy
laissez faire
he beleived that the best way to protect people's liberties was by seperating the power of government into legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason
Rosseau
meetings for the discussion of ideas
salons
he believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment.
Francis Bacon
he believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proven,
Rene Descartes
the only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his
own existence
I think therefore i am
Rene Descartes
doubt and question all ideas
skepticism
a denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
total skeptic
david hume
he denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics
Immanuel Kant
tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in____________ cannot be known
experience
john Locke believed the mind to be a
Tubula rasa
religion based on reason and natural law
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and left it alone
Deism
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believe that ___ could explain the universe
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
Enlightened Despots
when Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies__
reacted
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they
declared their independence
created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and federal system
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power is divided between a central government and regional governments
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century
French Revolution
name of France's social classes
Estates
king of France at the beginning of the French revolution
Louis XVI
first Estate
catholic clergy
second Estate
Nobility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants
third Estate
Middle Class
Bourgeoisie
Large gap between the rich and the poor
Causes of the French Revolution
in 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _____ for the first time in over 150 years
Estates General
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as
Estates
Third estate wanted to vote as
delegates
Louis XVI refused the third Estate's request for a
Mass Meeting
the third estate declared itself to be the
National convention
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was complete
Tennis court oath
ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisans to defend the National Assembly
Bastille
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
voted to end special privileges
of Nobility and Clergy
National Assembly
National Assembly declared freedom of speech
Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen
in 1791 the national Assembly created a
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
working-class men and woman who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded true democracy
Jacobins
Unpopular Queen of France
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on
Austria
Seized control of assembly
Jacobins
Jacobins killed people they claimed were
Counter-revolutionaries
called by radicals to rewrite French Constitution
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a
Republic
Convincted the Treason and executed by the National Convention
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spead of revolustions
allied against France
because of threats from within and without the convention formed thw
committee of public safety
jacobin became the head of the committee of public safety
Robespierre
to stop counter revolution the committee began the ___
Reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass mobilization
whole society helps to defeat enemy
mass mobilization
members of the convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety
Robespierre
Robespierre's death ended the ______
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
Bourgeoisie
conservative government set up by the convention after the end of reign of terror
directory
put in contol of france's army by the directory
Napoleon
seized power from the directory in a couped' estate
Napoleon
quick overthrow of government by a small group
coup d' etat
as first consul of the french republic napoleon assumed__
dictorial powers
used soldiers to restore order to france
napoleon
made the law clear and consistent
napoleonic code
bonaprte became Emperor Napoleon I by ___
the will of the people
napoleon expanded his empire to include most of
Europe
british admiral who defeated napoleon at the battle of trafalgar
horatio nelson
napoleon gave up on
invading britian
napoleon tied to keep british goods out of
European ports
napoleon invaded it because it refused to stop selling goods to britain
russia
was a disater because of winter conditions
napoleon's invation of russia
tactic used from russia napoleon lost
4/5 of his army
grand alliance defeated napoleon at leipzig germany
battle of nations
after the battle of nations the grand alliance took paris and exiled napoleon to
elba
napoleon escaped elba and upon returning to france
won widespread support
napoleon's brief comeback
the 100 days
napoleon's final deafeat to britain and prussia
waterloo
after waterloo napoleon was exiled to
st. helena
date of waterloo
AD 1815
napoeleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the ____ across Europe
French Revolution
after the deafeat of napoelon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace
congress of vienna
leading figure at the congress of Vienna
Metternich
leading figure at congress of vienna
Metternich