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252 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest Nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles the 5th
Dynasty of Charles the 5th and Philip II...
Hapsburg
When Charles the 5th divided his empire his son Philip II became...
King of Spain
Strongest Monarch during Spanish supremacy.
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by...
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by GOD.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Phillip II saw Spain as the defender of the...
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain wars against the enemies of the Catholicism. (Protestant, Muslims, ect..)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to...
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe...
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England..
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by religious conflict between...
Catholics & Huguenots
French Protestant Alvinists
Huguenots
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes...
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598...
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII...
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants...
Thirty Year War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Year War
Ended the 30 Years War
Peace Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of France
Colbert
A tax on import
Protective stariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his place
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating
Balance of Power
War fought to Keep Louis XIV grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598...
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII...
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants...
Thirty Year War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Year War
Ended the 30 Years War
Peace Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of France
Colbert
A tax on import
Protective stariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his place
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating
Balance of Power
War fought to Keep Louis XIV grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military Power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevention the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philip II English rival
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1658 to 1603
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada
Sea dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the divine Right of Kings
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed monarchs were only answerable to...
GOD
Succeeded James I as King of England
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil War
Charles I
It was fought over who should Rule England: Monarch or parliment
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Calaliers
Those who supported parliament in the England Civil War
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly
(religion)
puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War
Oliver Cormwell
The English parliament tried and executed
Charles I
The house of Commons abolish monarchy and declared England a republic called the
commonwelth
Cormwell drove out Parliament and set up a
military dictatorship
Name for Cormwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cormwell's dictatorship enforced a
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as lord Protector of England, but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a
Military coup
He was invited by a parliament to come back from exile and became King
Charles II
The return of Charles II as a King of England
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1600
The restoration gave England a
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II
Glorious Revolution
William & Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had except
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler established
limited monarchy
Date of Glorious Revolution
A.D. 1688
Was elected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power
Holy Roman Emperor
Allow Theresa th inherit the Throne of Austria.
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa' dynasty
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of monarchs
hohensollern
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian Army the most efficient fight force in Europe
Fredrick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Fredrick II (The Great)
he rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Fredrick II (the great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria & Prussia becomes a struggle between England & France
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French & Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and
backward country
Title of the Russian Ruler
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an
absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain an
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia
Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's border
Catherine the Great
Intellectual movement of the 17th & 18th centuries
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of
Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the (1500s & 1600s)
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System
Heliocentric theory
He developed a telescope and supported the Heliocentric theory
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of the scientific method than any other individual
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to repant by the
Catholic church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kelper
His discoveries change the view of the universe more than any one else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
He developed calculus
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau were all considered
social contract theorists
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the (1500s & 1600s)
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System
Heliocentric theory
He developed a telescope and supported the Heliocentric theory
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of the scientific method than any other individual
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to repant by the
Catholic church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kelper
His discoveries change the view of the universe more than any one else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
He developed calculus
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau were all considered
social contract theorists
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the (1500s & 1600s)
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System
Heliocentric theory
He developed a telescope and supported the Heliocentric theory
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of the scientific method than any other individual
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to repant by the
Catholic church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kelper
His discoveries change the view of the universe more than any one else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
He developed calculus
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau were all considered
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they
never had the right to revolt
form of government advocated by Thomas Hobbes
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life liberty and property
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of government was
Social Compact
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were not
protected, they had the
Right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment
Philosophies(not Philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance.
(wrote Candide)
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopedia
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia
Catholic Church
Diderot was for his writings in the Nations
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
Name For complete free market economy (leave it alone)
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believe people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Resseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method
Francis Bacon
He believe you should doubt ever thing which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NT with faith but without doubt
Rene Descartes
the only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his
own existance
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility
Skepticism
Total skeptic
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Metaphisics
Kant believed that things cannot be perceived in cannot be known
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a
Tabula rasa (blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion
Deism
Belief that GOD started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone
Deism
Some people reacted to he Enlightenment and did not believe that could explain the universe
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive and social cchanges
Enlightened Deposites
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies
reacted
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and and thus denied their natural rights they
declared their independence
Created a government with Montesquie's
U.S. Constitution
Government power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional government
Federalism
inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19 century
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French revolution
Louis XVI
First Estate
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate
Noblility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants
Third Estate
Middle class
Bourgeosie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First and Second Estate don't pay taxes, Enlightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread
Causes of the French Revolution
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the for the first time in over 150 yrs
Estate General
Louis XVI called the Estate General because he needed to
raise money
Upper to Estates wanted to vote
Estates
Third Estate to vote as
delegates
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate's request for a
Mass Meeting (voting as delegates)
The Third Estate declared its self to be the
National Convention
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed
Tennis Court Oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss Troops to Paris
LOUIS XVI
French Royal Prison, Attacked by Parisians to defend The National Assembly
Bastille
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Voted to end special privileges of the Nobility & Clergy (old regime)
National Assembly
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were not equal but did not grant rights to woman
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen."
In 1791 the National Assembly created a
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Working-class men and woman who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy"
Jacobins
Unpopular Queen of France
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on
Australia
Seized control of Assembly, removed king from office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins
Jacobin's killed people who claimed were
Counter-Revolutionaries)
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution
National Convevtion
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a
Republic
convicted of Treason And executed by the National Convention
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without(w/o), the Convention formed the
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of he Committee of Safety
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the . (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotion.)
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps defeat enemy
Mass Mobilization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared their for own safety. He was guillotioned along with many of his followers.
Rosespierre
Robespierre's death ended the
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror
Bourgeoisie
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror
Directory
Put in Command of France's armies by the Directory
Napoleon
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d' estate.
Napoleon
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d' estate
As first Consul to the French Republic Napoleon assumed
Dictatorial powers
used soldiers to restore order to France
Napoleon
Made in law clear and consistent in France
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by
The will of people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar
Horatio Nelson
Because of his defeat at the battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on
invading Britian
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of
European ports
napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions
Napoleons invasion of Russia
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon
Scorched-earth
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost
4/5 of his Troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Lepzing Germany
Battle of Nations
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to
Elba
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France
won widespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback
The 100 days
Napoleon's final defeat to Britain and PRussia
Waterloo
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to
St.Helena
Date of Waterloo
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the across Europe
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna
Metternich