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59 Cards in this Set

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called the first Crusade by asking his people for a volunteer army to take Jerusalem and Palestine from Seljuk Turks
Pope Urban II
holy city for people of three faiths
Jerusalem
Third Crusade because it was called by three kings
Crusade of Kings
God will it!
"Deus Vult"
military expeditions by European Christians in the 11-13th centuries to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
Crusades
attacked the city of Constantinople
Fourth Crusade
King of England who was one of the three kings who organized the Third Crusade
Richard I
Muslim peole from central Asia - took Jerusalem
Seljuk Turks
united Muslim forces in the Third Crusade and then captured Jerusalem
Saladin
1. helped break down Feudalism & increased authority of the kings
2. European presence in the East led to gereater demand for Eastern luxury goods: spices, sugar, melons, tapestries, silk
3. commerce increased in eastern Mediterranean area
Effects of the Crusades (3)
1 build better ships
2 make more accurate maps
3 use the magnetic compass to tell direction
4 imporve their weaponry
Crusaders learned to: (4)
Jerusalem - holy city for people of three faiths - name them
Christian, Muslim, Jewish
God's own city and the site of Solomon's temple
Jews -
holy because it was where Jesus died and resurrected
Christian -
third holiest city - Muhammad ascended to heaven in Jerusalem
Muslims -
traveling poet-musician who composed poems and songs about love and the feats of knights
troubadour
person who works for a master to learn a trade, art or a business
apprentice
economy based on money which grew and the feudal system declined
money economy
documents that gave them the right to control their own affairs
charters
medieval town - created the name for a new class of people
burg
Peter Abelard wrote a collection of controversial questions
Sic et Non
early scholastic teacher who taught theology in Paris
Peter Abelard
skilled artisan who owned a shop and employed other craftsworkers
master
epic that gives and account of the chivalrous defense of Christianity
Song of Roland
written by Thomas Aquinas - claimed that reason was God's gift that could provide answers to basic questions
Summa Theologica
craftsworker who has finished an apprenticeship and works for pay
journeyman
type of learning that sought to reconcile classical philosophy of Aristotle with the Church's teachings
scholasticism
medieval business association of merchants and craftsworkers;
primary function was to maintain a monopoly of the local market
guild
the language of everyday speech
vernacular
wrote The Canterbury Tales which describes a varied group of pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another
Geoffrey Chaucer
one of the earliest surviving literary works - tale of grim battle and gloomy scenery; show harshness of life
Beowulf
the most important scholastic thinker
Thomas Aquinas
wrote The Inferno in Italian that describes an imaginary journey from hell to heaven
Dante Aligheri
weapon used by English that could shoot arrows capable of piercing heavy armor at 300 yards
longbow
struggle over the throne in England between the royal house of Lancaster and the house of York
War of the Roses
Royal house of York, Edwards brother who tried to rule after Edward was killed but lacked support; he fell to Lancaster noble Henry Tudor
Richard III
Joan of Arc, with the support of King Charles VII, inspired a French army to victory over the English
Hundred Years' War
along with his wife Isabella, they wanted to unite Spain and wanted all Spaniards to be Catholic
Ferdinand of Aragon
reflects the technology of the High Middle Ages; great work of Gothic architecture
Cathedral of Chartres
17 yr old who told France's King Charles VII that heavenly voices had called her to save France
Joan of Arc
assembly of nobles, clergy and town officials in medieval Spain; also the parliament of modern Spain
cortes
tortured, tried and punished anyone suspected of heresy
Spanish inquisition
son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy, kept nobles under royal control, promoted trade and agriculture
Louis XI
The "Back Death" which was the worst medieval epidemic
bubonic plague
first Tudor king who eliminated royal claimants to the throne, avoided costly foreign wars and increased royal power over nobles
Henry VII
where Joan of Arc led the French to victory; thus she is called the "maid of Orleans"
Orleans
consisted of 3 Christian realms: Portugal (west), Castile (center) and Aragon on Mediterranean coast
Iberian Peninsula
married Ferdinand of Aragon, but their two kingdoms maintained separate governments
Isabella of Castile
Christians of Northern Spain had been fighting against Muslim areas in Spain
Reconquista
Wycliffe's followers who angrily criticized the Church
the Lollards
the Slavs of Bohemia
Czechs
supporters of Jan Hus who resisted the Church and the Holy Roman Emperor
the Hussites
two popes were elected and the first one refused to decline causing this
the Great Schism
journey to holy place
pilgrimage
long period of the exile of the popes at Avignon, France - about 70 years
Babylonian Captivity
scholar at England's Oxford University who criticized the Church's wealth, corruption among the clergy and pope's claim to absolute authority
John Wycliffe
the selling of Church possessions
simony
popular preacher and professor at the University of Prague who was the leader of the Czech religious reform movement
Jan Hus
French archbishop who was elected Pope and moved the papacy from Rome to Avignon in France
Pope Clement V