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33 Cards in this Set

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A form of government with power in the citizens who have voting rights to elect their leaders.
What is a Republic? p156.
The U.S.A. is a democratic-__________ since we elect those politicians who represent us.
In ancient Rome, a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class.
What is a Patrician?
p. 156.
Ex. The wealthy citizens of Pompeii who were covered in the ashe of Mt. Vesuvius in A.D.79.
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population.
What is a Plebian?
p. 156.
A member of the lower class of Roman Society;a commoner.
In ancient Rome, an official
elected by the Plebians to protect their rights against the Patricians.
What is a Tribune?
p. 156.
"Champion of the People"
In Roman Republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government.
What is a Consul?
p. 157.
These officials were like kings but only served one year, could not serve again for ten yrs. & could veto each others decisions.
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up of only aristocrats.
What is the Senate?
p. 157.
300 members chosen from Roman aristocracy who influenced foreign & domestic policy.
In ancient Rome, a political leader gien absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time.
What is a Dictator?
p. 157.
A magistrate appointed temporarily to deal with a crisis or emergency.
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 3,000-6,000 foot soldiers and a 100-200 cavalrymen.
What is a Legion?
p. 157.
A _____ was made up of smaller groups of 80 men called Centuries. Noted for organization & fighting skill
In 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage went to war. One of 3 wars fought between 264 & 146 B.C. for control of Sicily & the Mediterranean Sea.
What were the Punic Wars?
p. 158.
The first lasted 23 yrs., the second was led by Hannibal against Rome using elephants, the third featured the general Scipio defeating Hannibal at Zama in 202 B.C.
A brilliant Carthagenian military general/strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's defeat in 1st Punic War.
Who was Hannibal?
p. 158.
Led an army of 59,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 60 elephants over the French Alps in a surprise attack on Rome. Lasted 10 yrs.
A conflict between two political groups within the same country.
What is a Civil War.
p. 161.
Ex. The War Between the States in the U.S. also happened in Rome.
In 60 B.C., this military leader joined forces with Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general to be elected Consul of Rome.
Who was Julius Caesar?
p. 161.
He came to power with a triumvirate, conquered Gaul (France) and defeated his enemy Pompey's armies in Greece, Asia, Spain & Egypt.

In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
What is a Triumvirate?
p. 151.
Ex. Julius Caesar + Crassus + Pompey.
In 43 B.C., Octaviun took control of Rome with help from Marc Antony (an experienced general) and Lepitus (powerful politician) and adopted this title.
Who was Augustus?
p. 162.
Octaviun took this title meaning " exalted one " and imperator " supreme military commander" which later became Emperor (empire ruled by one man)
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
What is the Pax Romana?
p. 162.
"The Roman Peace" when the Empire included 3 million square miles, 60-80 million people, & 1 million within Rome itself.
A Jew born around 6-4 B.C. in the town of Bethlehem in Judea who preached the Gospels and Beatitudes. He was accused of Blasphemy by the Jewish Sanhedrin and condemned to die by crucifixion by Pontius Pilate at the will of the public for defying Roman authority. Believed to be the Messiah by Christians and a prophet by Jews.
Who was Jesus?
He spoke Aramaic, was a carpenter, was baptised by John the Baptist. His mother was Mary and father Joseph. He taught social change through love and salvation through faith in Yahweh (God).
One of the 12 followers of Jesus who preached and spread the teachings of Jesus.
Who is an Apostle?
p. 168.
Disciples of Jesus of Nazareth who spread his teachings after his death and resurrection.
An apostle who had enormous influence on early Christanity's development as a Jew who never met Jesus and at first was an enemy of Christianity.
Who was Paul?
p. 170.
He stressed that Jesus died for people's sins and that Christianity should accept all converts Jew/Gentile, and wrote the Epistles to cement these ideas in groups of believers.
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine, especially during the period of more than 1,800 yrs. that followed the Romans destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.
What is the Diaspora?
p. 170.
The body of Jews living dispersed among the Gentiles after Babylonian captivity.
In A.D. 312, this Roman Emperor fought against three rivals by selecting the Christian cause and cross as a symbol his soldiers shields. His victory was attributed to the Christian God.
Who was Constantine?
p. 171.
He sent his mother on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to collect religious artifacts of the Jesus crucifixtion.
A high ranking Christian official who supervises a number of local churches.
What is a Bishop?
p. 171.
A priest at the local level who led a group of churches.
The apostle who traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became their first Bishop.
Who was Peter?
p. 171.
Jesus referred to him as "the Rock" upon which the Christian Church would be built; head of all priests & bishops.
The Bishop of Rome, as head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Who is the Pope?
p. 171.
Peter was the first man to hold this title as head of the Roman Catholic Church.
A drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices of goods.
What is Inflation?
p. 173
An economic crisis that helped weaken Rome's economy along with decline in agriculture, famine, and diseases.
A soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army.
What is a Mercenary?
p. 173.
Accepted lower pay but were not as loyal since not defending their own lands.
A strong-willed army leader who became the Emperor in A.D. 284. He ruled with authority, limiting personal freedoms, curbed inflation by price-fixing, doubled size of Roman army and restored order and strength.
Who was Diocletian?
p. 174.
Divided Roman Empire into Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West appointing a Co-ruler to the west.
The city named by Emperor Constantine when he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium in present-day Turkey. Power shifted from West to East.
What is Constantinople?
p. 175.
The Eastern Capital would divide at Constantine's death. The West (Rome) would fall to Germanic invasions in A.D. 370.
In A.D.444. the Huns lead by Chieftain Attila with 100,000 warriors attacked East and West plundering 70 cities but not Constantinople or Rome.
Who was Attila?
p. 176.
In A.D.452 Attila advance on Rome but bouts of disease and famine kept him from conquering Rome.
The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures produced this new culture.
What was Greco-Roman Culture? p. 178.
"Classical Civilization" led to an infusion of Greek and Hellenistic cultures with Roman culture. Roman fine arts conveyed Roman ideals of strength, permancence and solidarity.
A Roman villa which was buried under the ashes of erupting Mount Vesuvius A.D.79 as well as Herculaneum. Villas were examples of Aristocratic Roman Society.
What was Pompeii?
p. 170.
This city held betw. 10-20 thousand people. The wealthy citizens had villas with slaves, frescos, mosaics, gardens w/ fountains, arts & sculptures.
This Roman poet spent 10 yrs. writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid, an epic of the legendary Aeneas.
Who was Virgil?
p. 170.
He modeled the Aeneid after the Greek epics of Homer, but praising Rome amd Roman virtues. He wrote that government was the most valuable contribution to civilization.
A Roman historian who is notable among ancient historians because he preserves the facts accurately and was concerned w/ Romans lack of morality.
Who was Tacitus?
p. 181.
In his Annals & Histories, he wrote of the good & bad of imperial Rome. Bad Emperors were: Caligula, Nero, & Domitian while Good Emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelias.
Designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns from far away. Lifted high up on arches to span rivers, ravines, etc.
What is an Aqueduct?
The arches were built of concrete to support this water carrier.