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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The development of what led to the need for banks?
How did the Medici family gain their wealth?
By building banks in Italy. London, and Flanders. Controlled city politics, were patrons of the arts
What did the artists of the Italian Renaissance give art?
Human beings rather than God were the central focus of all study amd artistic expressions. Also focused on the achievement of individuals.
First humanist, he collected works of Greek and Roman writers, wrote in vernacullar instead of Latin.
first of realists, told readers how to succeed in politics in real world, some call him first modern political thinker
(1564-1616) gave voice to Rennaissance belief in the human capacity for achievement on a grand scale
Marco Polo
ventured to Asia in 1200's to gain riches
Why did Portugal refuse to fund Columbus' voyage?
They thought Columbus had seriously miscalculated the distance between Europe and Asia
Martin Luther
monk and professor of theology in Wittenberg, Germany.
-pardon from punishments, sinners are to suffer after death
-1517, posted Ninety-Five Theses
A government that takes in one nation and one nation only.
What did the development of nation-states create between Europe nations?
new loyalties, new wealth, and a new spirit of optimism and self-confidence.
First nation to industrialize?
Effects of Industrial Revolution
technology explosion that allowed for many new useful inventions..trains, factories, new wealth.
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
Unrestriced competition, free trade, and a factory system ruled by the law of supply and demand rather than by govenment regulation.
Democratic Liberalism
-working class interests could no longer be ignored
-workers became better-educated and more assertive, revolutions swept through Europe
-governments set minimum waes, limited working hours and child labor, and monitered factory conditions
-unemployment compensations, health insurance and retirement benefits were created.
welfare of the community, rejected the idea of a free market in favor of a planned economy.
Marxism and the Communist Manifesto
-economic forces alone shaped human history, class struggle
-"The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!"
hatred and suspicion of another nation overshadows the love of one's own country.
-fighting was better than peace
-Europe was a field of armed camps, all ready for battle
How did self-determination in the Balkans make it known as the "Tinder Box of Europe"?
There were many different ethnicities, and only a spark was needed to ignite the fires of war between them.
Total War
an all-out commitment of human and material resources is demanded
What did Germany do after Russia pulled out of the war?
Germany moved its forces to France, focused its efforts to break the British blocked (which is what brought U.S. into the war)
How was the Middle East affected by the Treaty of Versailles?
Their lands were divided into French and British mandates, which caused many problems and outraged the Middle Easter peoples
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
-Germany would lose 1/10 of its territory in Europe and its colonies
-a 15 year Allied occupation of the Rhineland and removal of military forces there
-The German military would be reduced to 100,000 men, with a prohibition on artillery, tanks, airplanes, subs.
-Germany had to provide payment for damages from the war.
Why were there strikes in Petrograd in 1917?
Working women started the stirkes when the cost of break skyrocketed during the war.
What was the Dumas? How did they get the czar to step down?
-legislative body of Russia
-established a Provisional Government, and demanded the czar step down.
Who was the leader of the provisional government?
Alexander Kerensky, he decided to carry on the war to preserve the honor of Russia, and this upset the Russians
What were the Soviets?
Another authority affectinf the Provisional government, composed of deputies from workers and soldiers.
small faction of Russian Social Democrats (Marxist Party), led by Vladimir Ulianov (V.I. Lenin)
What did the Bolsheviks rename themselves after they had taken control of the government?
The Communists
Who was the war commissar of the Red Army?
Leon Trotsky

Whites-anti-communist forces
Totalitarian Sate
a government aimed to control not only the political side of life, but also the economic, social, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens.
Characteristics of totalitarian states
-want to conquer minds and hearts of subjects
-led by single political party and single leader
-rejected limited government power
-modern technology
What party did Mussolini form?
OVRA, his secret police

-In Italy
What did Mussolini become in 1922?
Prime minister; he became this through threating to march on Rome
What did Lenin create in 1922?
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
Who was the power struggle between after Lenin's death?
Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin
(The Soviet Union)
What happened to Trotsky?
expelled from the Communist party in 1927 and went to Mexico, where he was murdered by a Soviet agent sent by Stalin
What did Hitler do during WWI?
he was a dispatch runner on the western front
What party did Hitler form in 1921?
National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis), NSDAP
Who were the Storm Troops?
Hitler's personal force of thugs, which he used for breakin up other parties' meetings
What did he try to do in 1923 that landed him in prison?
The Beer Hall Putsch: Hitler and the S.A. (Storm Troops) tried to take the government of Munich by force
Mein Kampf
My Struggle

(Hitler's personal story)
Why did Hitler hate the Jews?
he believed a Jewish conspiracy cause the problems of the world (not about religion)
What did Hitler's theory related to Social Darwianism stress?
the right of superior nations to living space through force
Master Race
those human beings worthy of living
those humans not worth living
What did Hitler promise the German people?
a purified Reich of Aryans, free of Jews as well as the racially and mentally inferior
How did anti-Semitism change with the war in Easter Europe?
changed from a policy of persecution and expropriation into a program of systematic extermination.
How were Gypsies viewed in Europe prior to Nazi harassment?
a nuisance
What happened to Gypsies as the war began in Poland?
high ranking Nazis planned on the removal of 30,000 Gypsies to Poland.
-200,000 were killed
What were disable people labeled?
a biological threat to the racial purity
What would happen to children labeled as deformed or defective?
They were taken from their parents and starved to death or euthanized. Adults were shot or starved.
Did the Nazis have a blueprint for the destruction of the Jews when they came into power in 1933?
No. it gradually evolved
What was the first phrase of the Holocaust?
Legal Discrimination-Nuremberg Laws
force Jews to emigrate, wear yellow star of David
What were the laws called that stripped the Jews od their civil rights?
Nuremberg Laws
What was the second phase?
War starts in September 1939 and borders close.
Property is stolen from Jewsand they are forced into Ghettos
Third phase?
Eradication of the Jews
Wannsee Conference
representatives from various governments met to agree on how to administer the "final solution"
January 20, 1942
What was Zyklon B gas?
the cheapest and most effective gas used in the gas chambers
In Poland, and was the biggest extermination camp
What were the two essential characteristics of the Holocaust which made effective resistance by the Jews impossible?
-The German state were involved in the policies, laws and decrees. There was no way to appeal or hide
-The step-by-step nature made it impossible for people to understand until it was too late.
Did the Nazi government publicly announce the destruction of the Jews?
No. They convinced their citizens that the policies of the Nazi state could not be judged by moral standards.
How did collaborationist governments assist with the destruction of the Jews?
-Vichy government of France introduced and implemented anti-Jewish measures. They voluntarily identified and deported 75,000 men, women, and children.
Who were the second highest number of those who died in the Holocaust?
How did Hitler violate the Treaty of Versailles in 1935?
"master race" theory, desire for "living space"
What country did Italy take in 1935?
What was the non-aggression pact?
signed between Germany and Stalin/Soviet Union. Allowed Germany to fight one front war at a time.
When did Hitler attack Poland?
September 1, 1939

lightening war

-an invasion of takns with massive air support
Axis Powers
German and Italy
Allied Powers
France and England
What did the U.S. threaten in 1940 if Japan countinued its aggressive behavior?
economic sanctions
When did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941

As a result, the U.S. declares war on Japan
After WWII, who were the Axis and Allied powers?
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan

Allied: France, England, U.S.
By June 1940, what was the only Western European country Hitler did not control?
What was it called when Germany and Britain were fighting each other?
The Battle of Britain
July 1940-October 1940
What were the first two major mistakes made by Germany that would lead to their downfall?
-failure to defeat the British
-invasion of the Soviet Union
Why did Hitler attack North Africa?
to cut off the British oil supply
German general in charge: Erwin Rommel
What was the name of the operation in which the Allies defeated the Germans in 1943?
Battle in the Pacific
When was D-Day?
the largest amphibious invasion in military history, allied forces strom the beaches of Normandy to take back Western Europe from Hitler. Officially called Operation Overlord
When was the Battle of the Bulge?
Decembr 1944-January 1945
named due to the Nazis' attempt to create a "bulge" in Allied front line.
-victory for Allied forces
When did the war in the Europen theater (V-E Day) end?
May 7, 1945
What was the Yalta Conference?
Attended by Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin to determine what to do with Europe after the war
What four things happened at the Yalta Conference?
1.United Nations established
2.Germany to be split into 4 zones; Soviet Union, U.S., France and Great Britain would each receive a zone.
3. Germany pays $20 billion in reparations
4. Poland would eventually get free elections
What two wars occured during the Cold War?
The Korean War and the Vietnam War
-The U.S. and the Soviet Union never directly fought each other
When did communism fall in the Soviet Union?
1989, along with the fall of the Berlin Wall.