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69 Cards in this Set

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buddhism
a religion that originated in India around 500 BC and spread to China; it grew into a major religion
Islam
monotheistic religion based on the teachings og Muhammed; major religion in North Africa
Taoism
philosophy based on the book Tao Te Ching and the teachings of Lao-Tzu, who lived in China in the 6th century BC; believed in preserving harmony in the individual, with nature, and universal, and no government interference
Confucianism
movement based on the teachings of Confucious (500BC); stressed the importance of education in an ordered society, respect owed to elders, and obeying the government
Judaism
oldest of the southwest religions, concentrated in Israel( established around 3200 years ago); oldest monotheistic religion, long tradition of faith, culture

holy book=Torah
holy city=Jerusalem
Hiduism
dominant religion in India
Pillars of Islam
prayer (5x a day), faith (only one god, Allah), charity (taking care of poor), pilgrimage (to holy city of Mecca), and fasting (during month of Ramadan, from sunrise to sunset)
Population density
the average number of people who live in a measurable area, found by dividing the number of people by the amount of land occupied
urbanization
the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result
Push Pull factors
factors that cause people to leave their homes (push) and factors that attract people to a region (pull)
Immigrant
a person who leaves their home country and settles permanently in a new country
migration
the movemnt of peoples within a country of region
rate of natural increase
"population growth rate"-the rate at which population is growing, foound by subtracting mortality rate from birthrate
birthrate
the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population
mortality rate
the number of deaths per thousand
population pyramid
a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population
continental drift theory
the theory that all continents were once joined into a supercontinent that split apart over millions of years
debt-for-nature-swap
a debt-reducing deal wherein an organization agrees to pay off a certain amount of government debt in return for government protection of a certain portion of rain forest
gross national product
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a period of time
gross domestic product
(GDP) the value of only goods and services produced within a country in a period of time
command economy
type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production (planned economy)
per capita income
the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
recession
an extened period of decline in general business activity
5 themes of geography
location (where is it?), place (what is it like?), region (how are places similar or different?), movement (people/ideas etc move from one location to another), human environment interaction ( people relate to physical world)
deforestation
the cutting down and clearing away of tress and forests
longitude lines
a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, dividing it east and west. the Prime meridian is labeled 0 degree line
latitude lines
a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, amd that are used in locating places north or south. equator = 0 degree line
Equator
the imaginary line that encircles the globe, dividing the earth into northern and southern halves
political map
shows features on the earth's surface that humans created (ie cities, states, provinces, territories, countries)
physical map
helps you see types opf landforms and bodies of water found in a specific area (colors/shading indicates elevation)
shape, size, location
shape: the shape of a country or region
size: the area of a country or region
location: longitude and latitude of an area
artificial boundary
a fixed line generally following latitude or longitude lines
natural boundary
based on physical features of the land (ie rivers, lakes, mountains)
absolute location
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
relative location
describes a place in relation to other places around it
animism
belief in divine forces in nature (traditional)
polytheism
belief in many gods
theocracy
form of government in which religious leaders control government, relying on relgious law and consultation with religious scholars
dictatorship
type of government in which an individual or a group holds complete political power
democracy
type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
monarchy
type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or a queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizens
communism
system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of production
pandemic
a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area
Apartheid
a policy of complete seperation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa
AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), destroys immune system
Berlin Conference
a conference of 14 European nations held in 1884-1885 in Berlin, Germany, to establish rules for political control of Africa
Chernobyl
site of a nuclear power plant near Kiev, in Ukraine, where there was a catashropic accident in 1986
ethnic group
a group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage
stateless nation
a nation of people that does not have a territory to legally occupy ie Palestinians, Kurds, and Basques
Nation-state
the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same territory
dialect
a version of a language that reflects changes due to class, region, or cultural changes
economy
the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people
economic system
the way people produce and exchange goods
polygamy
condition or practice allowing a person to have more than one spouse
caste system
the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation
acculturation
the cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation
one child policy
in china, where families are encouraged to have only one child to reduce population growth. governments offer certain rewards for having only one child such as paying for education, healthcare, etc.
Rai
a kind of popular Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast-paced with danceable rhythms; was sometimes used as a form of rebellion to expose political unhappiness
Yurts
a tent of central Asia's nomads
Anti-Semitism
discrimination against the Jewish
sweatshop
a workplace where people work long hours for low pay under poor conditions to enrich manufacturers
Nelson Mandela
one of the leaders of the African National Congress who led a struggle to end apartheid and was elected president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa
Ghandi
great Indian leader who started a nonviolence movement to grant India its freedom from Britain
Dalai Lama
the traditional government rule and highest priest (of Buddhism) of Tibet and Mongolia
Mao Zedong
the leader of the Communists in China who defeated the Nationalists in 1949; died in 1976
Yasser Arafat
leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1929-2004); Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 after signing Oslo peace agreement loved by palestinians, hated by israelis
Kashmir
a region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought
Tibet
upland area in south west China that was conquered by the Mongols then by the Chinese, found between Himalayan and Kunlun Mountains
Chechnya
one of the republics that remains a part of russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union despite independence movements and violent upheaval