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19 Cards in this Set

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A kingdom in 700's A.D. whose rulers got rich taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory including gold & salt.
Where is Ghana?
the Soninke people called their ruler ______ meaning "war chief" then Muslim traders began calling this territory Ghana. The Berber nomads began using camels (3rd C. A.D.) to cross the desert with goods for trade. Mainly traded gold for salt needed to sustain human life.
Kingdom founded by Mandu-speaking people who lived in S. Ghana & got wealthy from eastern gold mines.
Where is Mali?
p. 415.
By 1400A.D. this empire grew to replace Ghana in wealth and power due to new gold mines found in Eastern
Mali's first great "Mansa" or emperor, who came to power from military victories over Ghana trading cities of Kumbi & Walata.
Who was Sundiata?
This Mansa came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular ruler, leading his people to peace & prosperity by selecting able administrators to run his empire in finance, defense & foreign affairs. This name means "where the king lives"
Possibly Sundiata's Grandnephew who ruled about 1312-1332A.D. He was skilled at military tactics and gained royal control over the gold-salt trade, put down rebellions and delegated powers to governors to rule provinces fairly & efficiently.
Who was Mansa Musa?
p. 415.
A devout Muslim, he went on a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca (1324-25)& returned to build new mosques at the trading cities Timbuctu & Gao. Many Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders & scholars came to Timbuctu to attend its mosques & universities.
A traveler & historian from Tangier N. Africa who traveled 27 yrs. seeing Islamic countries. He praised people for living peacefully, obeying the justice system & studying the Quran but criticized them for not practicing moral codes of Islam.
Who was Ibn Battuta?
p. 416.
A Muslim historian who traveled to Timbuctu & many Mali cities & left about 1353.
A west African empire that conquered Mali & controlled trade from the 1400's -1591.
Rulers were Sumni Ali a military leader and Akia Muhammed an effective governor.
Where was Songhai?
Located on the Niger River near Gau (Capital). Under Sumni Ali Timbuctu was captured and Djenne after a 10yr. seige.
A group of W. Africans named for their language who ruled 1000-1200 A.D. the Savannah area east of Mali in N. Nigeria. Rulers built walled cities for capitals & ruled farming outside city walls called ____ city-states, Zassau had much slave trade.
What is Hausa?
Slaves were taken from a southern region and sold to traders by tribal kings. The traders exchanged them with N. or W. African Societies for horses, harnesses, & guns. Some were kept for repairing city walls or farming.
People who spoke the language _______ in forests on southern edge of what is today Benin & SW Nigeria. They farmed & some combined to form two kingdoms of Ife & Oyo in 1100 A.D.
what is Yoruba?
spoke common language in small city-states, provided cities w/ surplus food, and had gifted artists and trader in wood &ivory, terra cotta, & cast metal
A Kingdom to the SE of Ife & near Niger River Delta. In 1300's became a major West African State by 1400's. Ruler bases his heritage claiming descent from 1st Ibe king. Cities had walls, palaces, w/ courtyards, & art work of brass & copper
What is Benin?
p. 419.
Traded w/ Portuguese for pepper, leopard skins, ivory , & enslaved persons.
A language comprised of Bantu & Arabic spoken in eastern & central Africa.
What is Swahili?
A blend of Bantu & Arabic formed when Arab & Persian traders settled in port cities
An empire built on gold trade in S.E. Africa by the Shona people. After 1000A.D. controlled trade routes & became capital from 1200-1400 A.D. as the economic, political and religious center of empire. Had massive walls w/o mortar and about 10,000 people.
What is Great Zimbabwe?
p. 425.
Leaders taxed traders and less powerful chiefs but was abandoned about 1450 due to depleted resources of salt, timber and soil.
An empire built by Mutota who left Great Zimbabwe about 1420 to find a new source of salt. He founded a new state in the north built an army to dominate the Shona tribes and forced them to pay tribute to support him and his army. He & later Matope, his son came to control all but Eastern Zimbabwe and areas along Zambese River & Indian Ocean Coastline. Mined gold was exchanged for luxuries.
What is Mutapa?
The conquered people of the region "Mutota" & the leaders successors called "mwene mutapa" or conqueror controlled all but E. Zimbabwe. The Southern part broke away and later Portuguese tried to colonize it unsuccessfully.
Descendants of a common ancestor, including past generations (spirits of ancestors) & future generations (children not yet born) yielding strong loyalties.
What is Lineage?
the organization of families
in Africa.
African societies in which lineage groups take the place of rulers w/ no centralized leader. Authority is based on balance of equal power so that no one family had too much control.
What are Stateless Societies?
p. 410.
Ex. the Igbo/Ibo of S. Nigeria in 9th C. used respected elders from different lineages to settle disputes among citizens
Societies that trace their ancestors through thier fathers w/ inheritance passing from father to son w/ wife & children part of extended family.
What is Patrilineal?
p. 410.
Using the father to decide how inheritance is passed on to offspring.
Children trace their ancestry through their mothers ; men inherit wealth from the mothers family but men usually held positions of authority.
What is Matrilineal?
p. 410.
young men inheriting land and wealth from their mothers.
Part of Africa on the Mediterranean Coast in (p.d.) Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, & Moroccoa invaded by Muslims in A.D. 670 w/ government based on Islamic Law using religious scholars as government advisors.
What is the Maghrib?
p. 410.
the Mediterranean Coast of N. Africa in A.D. 670
An Islamic religious brother hood that established an empire in N. Africa & S. Spain in the 11th C. A.D.
What are the Almoravids?
p. 412.
This empire was erected by Muslim reformers from Berbers from Mauritania. The reformers brought back a Muslim scholar IbnYassin to teach Islam & spread it by conquest. At his death in 1059 they conquered Morrocco, made Marrakech the capital & overran Ghana in 1076 & S. Spain where they were called Moors.
A group of Islamic reformers who overthrew the Almoravid dynasty & established an empire in N. Africa & S. Spain in the 11th C. A.D.
What are the Almohads?
p. 412.
in mid-1100s these Berber Muslim reformers seized power as a religious movement from Atlas Mts. of Morocco.Led by Abd al-Mumin they urged people to return to their traditional beliefs. They controlled a region from Marrakesh to Tripoli and Tunis on the Mediterranean. It only lasted 100yrs. but unified the Maghrib under one rule for the first time