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20 Cards in this Set

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Human-made objects such as tools & jewelry from the past
What is an Artifact?
Objects that tell how people lived, worked, worshiped, etc.
A people's unique way of life
comprised of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other human work & thought of a population.
What is Culture?
The total product of human creativity and intellect at a particular time.
Humans and other creatures that walk up-right (bipedally), ex. australopithecines
What is a Hominid?
Ex. Lucy - found by Mary Leakey in Tanzania, East Africa in 1974.
The Old Stone Age (2.5 Million to 8000B.C.) when the oldest stone chopping tools were made.
What is the Paleolithic Age?
Invention of tools, making fire, & language development
Second phase of Stone Age when people learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, & raise animals.
What is the Neolithic Age?
8000B.C. to 3000B.C., the "New" Stone Age.
Using intelligence to develop ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet human needs.
What is Technology?
This development allowed early humans migrate through developing better tools,language, & fire-making.
The species name for modern humans meaning "wise men" who had much larger brains than Homo Erectus.
What are Homo Sapiens?
Ex. Neanderthals & Cro-Magnons.
Highly mobile people who moved from place to place foraging (searching) for new sources of food.
What are Nomads?
Lifestyle of Old Stone Age Hominids
Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
What are Hunter-Gatherers?
Used tools such as special spears and digging sticks.
The Agricultural Revolution which shifted from food-gathering to food-producing culture which allowed humans to specialize in their work.
What is the Neolithic Revolution?
Allowed for Diversified Occupations.
Third world countries clear-cut trees and grasses and burn them to clear fields for planting crops.
What is Slash-and-Burn Farming?
Burning puts nitrogen in soil which produces good crops temporarily but soon loses its fertility.
The taming of animals (ex. cat, dog, pig, horse) over long periods of time with humans.
What is Domestication?
Pastoral nomads tended sheep, goats, camels,etc. as a constant source of milk and meat in their migration
A complex culture with 5 major characteristics: (1)advanced cities (2)specialized workers (3)complex institutions (4) record-keeping (5) advanced technology.
What is Civilization?
Advanced Cities were the birthplace of ____?______
The development of skills in a specific kind of work
What is Specialization?
developed due to large food surplus
Skilled workers who made goods by hand.
What is an Artisan?
Ex. stone workers, metalurgists, carpenters, jewelers, et. al.
A long-lasting pattern of organization in a community.
What is an Institution?
Ex. government, religion, economy, et. al.
Professional record-keepers who, in Sumer, invented a system of writing called cuneiform (wedge-shaped)
What are Scribes?
this "wedge-shaped" writing developed after pictographs -symbols of the objects or what they represented
When people in Sumer began using bronze to fashion tools and weapons.
What is the Bronze Age?
This age developed a metal harder and more durable than stone or copper around 3000B.C. Ex. the Ice Man found in 1991.
A means of trading goods and services without money.
What is Bartering?
trading services for goods or vice versa or goods for goods.
A massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped monument used for worship (polytheistic)
What is a Ziggurat?
A holy temple used for worship and sacrifices