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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who helped start communism in China?
Mao Zedong
What are spheres of influence?
Areas of China in which the U.S. and Europe had some political & economic power but didn't directly govern
What group in China disliked the foreign power, but were influenced by Western ideas?
The Nationalist People's Party
What does abdicate mean?
Give up the throne
What group seized power in China in 1911, forcing the emperor out?
The Nationalists - declared China a republic
Who are warlords?
Regional leaders with their own armies
What type of government did China's first Nationalist president try to set up?
Who became the 2nd president of the Nationalists?
Chiang Kai-shek
The Nationlists split into what 2 types of government ideals?
Communist & Democratic - Chiang Kai-shek wanted democracy
What did Chiang Kai shek order be done to the communists?
He ordered them killed
What was the Long March?
A weakened group of Communists of 100,000 walked for 1 year - over 6,000 miles to escape the Nationalists - only 8,000 survived
Who became the leader of the Communists?
Mao Zedong
While the Chinese were fighting amongst themselves, who invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria?
The Japanese - 1930s
To what island did Chiang Kai-shek flee?
What proclaimation did Mao Zedong make on 10/1/1949?
He announced the new Communist state called "The People's Republic of China"
What was the "Great Leap Forward"?
Collective farms were combined into "People's Communes" - farm production fell - only lasted 2 years
What was the "Great Cultural Revolution"?
Goal was to destroy the "4 Olds" - old idealogy, old thought, old habits, old customs - enforced by the Red Guard
How long did the "Cultural Revolution" last?
2 Years - big failure - ruined ecomony
What was the program called "The 4 Modernizations"?
A program by Deng Xioping to improve - agriculture, industry, science/technology & defense
What was the "contract responsibility system" for agriculture?
The gov. rented land, but people decided what to grow, had to sell certain amount to government for certain price
What is light industry?
Production of small consumer goods - like clothes etc.
What are the 4 Special Economic Zones?
Areas located on China's east coast near Taiwan and Hong Kong - give tax breaks to foreigners to set up business in China
What are 2 problems of China's economic growth?
Rapid Urban growth has caused crime and corrput police - decrease in farmers/food production
What is the "Fifth Modernization"?
Political freedom - don't have it yet
What is martial law?
Law that is administered during periods of strict military control
What happened in Tiananmen Square in 1989?
Troops open fired on demonstrators without warning, killing 2,000 who wanted democratic reforms
What region in China has its major lowlands & has the greatest concentration of its population?
Northeast Region - capital of Beijing in located here
What is loess?
A yellow-brown silt dropped by seasonal dust storms
Why is the Huang He also called the "Yellow River"?
Loess ends up in the Huang He and gives it a yellow color
What river is known as "China's Sorrow"?
The Huang He - "The Yellow River"
What is double cropping?
Growing more than 1 crop a year on the same field
What Southeast Region river flows east to China's largest part of Shanghai?
The Yangzi River - aka Ch'ang River
What is China's largest city?
In what region are China's Four Economic Zones?
Southeast Region
What desert makes up most of Mongolia?
The Gobi Desert
Which country helped Mongolia gain independence from China?
Russia - the Soviets
What ancient trade route crossed the Northwest region of China?
The Silk Road
What 2 deserts are found in China's Northwest region?
The Gobi Desert
The Taklamakan Desert
What is the main occupatio nof the Northwest region?
Nomadic herding
What is the dominant land feature of the Southwest region?
The Plateau of Tibet
What is the highest region in the world?
The Plateau of Tibet
What is the main religion in the Plateau of Tibet?
What is a theocrat?
Someone who claims to rule by religious or divine authority
Who is the theocratic leader of Tibet?
The Dalai Lama
What is an autonomous region?
A political unit with limited self-government - Tibet is controlled by China
What is the most populated country in the world?
China - 1.2 billion people
How is China trying to slow population growth?
A policy of 1 couple = 1 child
What is the main ethnic group in China?
The Han - name came from the Han Dynasty
What are ideograms?
Pictures or characters that represent things or ideas
What is the official language of China?
What religion did Laozi form?
Daoism - happiness is to live in harmony with the natural world - must follow the Dao "the Way"
Who founded the faith/philosophy of Confucianism?
What is atheism?
Denies existence of God - religion is a myth to dominate people
Is China and atheist state?
Yes - discourages religious practice
What are the 3 main religions of China?
What is accupuncture?
The practice of inserting needles at specific points on the body to cure diseases or to ease pain
What is a buffer?
A protective zone - Mongolia is a buffer between China & Russia
What is a provisional government?
Temporary government
Is Taiwain recognized as a country by most nations?
No - seen as part of China
Which European country forced China to leave them Hong Kong for 99 years?
The British
What 2 things have helped Hong Kong to become a world trade leader?
Its central location on the East Asian sea routes & its natural harbors
What people sought refuge in Hong Kong after WWII?
1 Million Chinese & 1 million other Asians fleeing political unrest
What would Hong Kong become after the lease with Britian ended in 1997?
A Special Administration Region - meaning it would continue on a s before for the next 50 years
When did Mongolia switch from Communism to Democracy?
The early 1990s
What is the traditional form of work in Mongolia?
Nomadic herding