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37 Cards in this Set

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refugee
person who must leave his or her home and flee elsewhere for safety
chaparral
type of vegetation made up of dense forests of shrubs and short trees, common in Mediterranean climates
dialect
local form of a langauage used in a particular place or by a certain group
environmentalist
perosn actively concerned with the quality an protection fo the environment
heavy industry
the manufacture of machinery and equipment needed for factories and mines
sirocco
hot desert wind that can blow air and dust from North Africa to western Europe's Mediterranean coast
peat
vegetable matter usually found in swamps; sometimes cut and burned as fuel in parts of western Europe
fjord
long, steep-sided glacial valley now filled by seawater
foehn
warm dry wind that blows from the leeward side of mountains, sometimes melting snow and causing an avalanche
collective farm
under communism, a large, state-owned farm on which farmers received wages plus a share of products and profits
romanticism
artistic style emphasizing individual emotions that developed in Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s as a reation to industrialization
permafrost
permantly frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
cold war
refers to the power struggle between the soviet union an dthe united states
acid rain
precipitation carrying large amounts of pollution
communism
social and political movement developed by Marx and Lenin that favored revolution to establish a classless society in which workers would control industrial production
light industry
manufacturing aimed at making consumer goods, such as textiles or food processing
welfare state
nation in which got assumes major responsibility for peoples welfair in areas such as health and education
biologist
scientist who studies plant and animal life
mixed farming
raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm
polder
low lying area of the netherlands from which seawater has been drained to create new farmland
consumer goods
household goods, shoes, and clothing that individuals buy
farm cooperative
organization in which farmers share in growing and selling farm products
holocaust
term given to the mass killings of 6 million European Jews by Germany's Nazi leaders during World War II
impressionism
artistic style that developed in Europe in the late 1800s and tried to show the natural appearance of objects with dabs or strokes of color
realism
artistic style portraying everyday life that developed in Europe during the mid-1800s
language family
group of reltated languages that have all eveloped from one earlier language
acid desposition
wet or dry airborne acids that fall on the earth
meltwater
water formed by melting snow and ice
feudalism
system of govt in which powerful lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty
mistral
strong northerly wind from the Alps that can bring cold air to southern france
organic farming
the use of natural substances to enrich the soil and grow crops rather than chemical fertilizers and pesticides
state farm
under communism, a state-owned farm managed by govt officials
crusades
sereies of religious wars in which European Christians tried to retake palestine from muslim rule
city-state
in ancient Greece, independent community consisting of a city and the surroounding lands, where democracy first developed
avalanche
mass of ice, snow, or rock that slides down a mountain side
reformation
religious movement that began in Germany in the 1400s, leading to the establishment of protestant churches
tariff
a tax on imports or exports