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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
major culture changes that occur as a result of prolonged contact between societies
acculturation
the systematic study of human beings, past and present, and their cultures
anthropology
the study of material objects, from the past, to describe and explain human behavior
archaeology
the branch of anthropology that focuses on the patterns of life in a society
cultural anthropology
behaviors common to all cultures, such as marriage, education, and communication
cultural universals
all the learned behavior of a group
culture
the spread of traits from one culture to another culture
diffusion
the process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. Also called trans-generational learning.
Enculturation
the rule that marriage must be within a particular group or category of individuals
endogamy
refers to the race, language, customs, and religion of a particular social group in a country
ethnic group
the belief that one's own culture is superior to all other cultures
ethnocentrism
the rule that marriage must be outside of the group
exogamy
a group of related families that live together
extended family
persons of many different ethnic, racial, religious, or social backgrounds
heterogeneous population
persons who have the same, or similar ethnic, racial, religious or social backgrounds
homogeneous population
the "invention" or development of a new trait
innovation
the scientific study of all aspects of language
linguistics
a common form of marriage which involves the union of one man and one woman
monogamy
a punishment that is imposed by a group for behavior that violates its norms
negative sanction
patterns of behavior, such as customs and laws, which are obeyed by the majority of the members of a society
norms
a mother, a father, and dependent children
nuclear family
the systematic study of humans as biological organisms
physical anthropology
the marriage custom of a woman having several husbands at the same time
polyandry
a marriage in which an individual has more than one spouse at the same time
polygamy
the marriage custom of a man having several wives at the same time
polygyny
a reward that is given by a group for behavior that conforms to its norms
positive sanction
a deliberate attempt by some members of a society to construct a more satisfactory culture
revitalization movements
an established form of procedure, particulary in religious ceremonies
ritual
behavior which is learned and involves certain rights and duties associated with a position (status)
role
a sparsley populated area
rural
the division of society into two or more groups ranked from high to low
stratification
an individual's position in a society based on prestige
status
a culture or subgroup within a larger culture which has distinct and unique characteristics, life-styles, practices and beliefs, yet basically follows the norms of the larger group
subculture
a forbidden behavior which is repulsive and unacceptable to a group
taboo
a distinct difference between one culture and another
trait
a densely populated area
urban
things important to a group
values