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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The growth of Labor unions and the implementation of better working conditions in England owed a debt of gratitude to?
The Chartist movement in England
The second Industrial Revolution was mainly propelled by?
Petroleum and Electricity
What 19th century development most improved the daily lives of the average population was?
The application of electrical power
Joint stock companies of the late 19th century brought about, most significantly?
Separation of ownership and management.
Labor unions were first legalized what country in the 1870s?
England
The one thing that people seemed to fear most about unionization was that?
Marxism had taken hold in several countries and was threating to take control of labor unions.
American unions were never heavily influenced by?
Marxism
During the Second Industrial Revolution the split between middle-class liberals and the workers occurred in part because?
The workers moved in a revolutionary direction (Unionism) that frightened the liberals
What theory stated that the plight of the working class will cause a revolution?
Marxism
According to Marx, the revolt of the proletariat was?
Inevitable and he expected that it might well occur while he was alive.
A complete rejection of the state and its powers is called?
Anarchism
The event that set off massive immigration to the United States from Europe was?
The revolts of 1848 (political upheavals)
During the ten year period just prior to World War I, about how many people emigrated from Europe to other countries?
12 Million
Most migrants went to?
The United States
The underlying motives of the majority of the 60 million Europeans who emigrated during the 19th century appeared to have been?
Economic
After Alexander II freed Russia’s serfs, the generally?
Fared worse than they had under serfdom with many new laws and restrictions.
The less government the better is the concept of?
Laissez Faire in government
Who advanced the idea that the poor were doomed to stay poor through their own fault?
The Manchester Liberals.
The subordination of the individual to mass politics is a significant aspect of the?
Modern Nation State
The Ottoman Empire had ____ ____ and this was very unusual compared to other Muslims areas at the time.
Religious Toleration
One of the most destructive forces on the Ottoman Empire was the sultan’s decision to?
Have their sons raised in the harem rather than with the military.
What began as a strength but later became a weakness in the Ottoman Empire?
Change in the rights of the janissaries.
From the 1600’s onward the Ottomans responded to technological change by?
Ignoring it as much as possible.
The Muslim world rejected, for the most part, Western science and education and this resulted in?
The decline of Islam’s as a driving force throughout the world in the late 1800’s
The driving force behind the expansion of Islam up to the 18th century was?
The belief that spreading the faith and establishing God’s earthly kingdom was a tenet of the faith.
The first Islamic state to attempt modernizing were the?
Ottomans
Defeats and losses of territory that took place in the early part of the 1700s convinced the grand viziers and Ottoman sultans that their best course of action was to?
Build up and improve their military structure, but modernize as conservatively as possible.
What important event took place in 1869?
The Suez Canal opened
In Iran the most important crop to the British was?
Tobacco
Fundamentalist Muslims believed that the main task of the civil government is to?
Establish Allah’s kingdom on earth with “enforcers of obedience”
In more recent times, most Muslims ulama have?
Continued to ignore innovations.
What had to happen for the Industrial revolution to happen
Improvements in agriculture and the scientific revolution.
Improvements in agriculture that started the Agriculture Revolution were?
Enclosed fields, Crop Rotation, and Farm Machinery
Who was the leader in the industrial revolution mainly in Cotton and Coal?
England
What fueled the first revolution?
Steam power
What played a key role in getting the food from the farms to the factories?
Steam powered train
What gave America the work force needed for the revolution?
The large influx of immigrants to the U.S.
What fueled the second industrial revolution?
Electricity and petroleum
Who invented electricity
Thomas Edison
What reduced the waste from horses in the cities by providing an alternate form of transportation?
Electric trolley cars
Define the Bessemer process.
The Bessemer process is a process of turning iron into steel faster and stronger.
What provided the steel needed to lay more railroad tracks, build large buildings, improve farm machinery and make improvements to technology?
Bessemer process
The Bessemer process was key for what to happen?
The industrial revolution
Who brought the Bessemer process from England to the U.S?
Andrew Carnegie
Who built huge steel factories?
Andrew Carnegie
Who did Andrew Carnegie sell his steel factories too?
J.P Morgan
Who was know for making steel?
Andrew Carnegie
Who was known for railroads?
J.P Morgan
In 1860, the United States was fourth in manufacturing in the world when did they become first?
By 1900, the U.S. was first in manufacturing in the world and was producing more than the remaining top 3 combined. This was huge for economic growth
Who was one of the main industrialist responsible for bringing the railroad together in the U.S
J.P Morgan
Define Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism states that some people are superior and some are inferior. This theory comes from Charles Darwin studying at the Galápagos Islands. The theory was biological at its conception but was later applied to a social concept.
Who was one of the main industrialist for oil?
John Rockefeller
The Ottoman’s weakness was a government that depended for the most part on the qualities and energy of what two individuals?
The Sultan and the Grand Vizier
What were the strengths of the Ottoman empire (1300-1922)?
Literature, architecture, symbolic imagery, a commitment to justice for all, tolerance for nonbelievers, and a literary language.
One weakness of the Ottoman Empire was the inability to convert the Qur’an based Sharia code of law to?
Changing necessities in legal administration
Define Laissez-faire.
If government would only let them alone to do what they saw best fit, the merchants and manufactures of every nation would produce goods and services to meet the demands of the market most efficiently and economically.
Economic liberalism grew directly from the path breaking work of whom?
Adam Smith (The Gospel of Free Enterprise)
What did Adams Smith’s adherents to The Gospel of Free Enterprise want?
Laissez-faire, Free Trade, and the less government the better.
Define free trade
Producers should be allowed to trade with any place and anyone at prices that the free market would set.
What did the liberals mean by the less government the better?
They believed that the free market alone would provide proper guidance for policy decisions and despised government controls.
In early 19th century England, extreme laissez-fairism was often called ____ ____ because of its popularity with the cotton mill owners in Manchester.
Manchester Liberalism
The revolt that broke out in the street of ____ ____ Paris in late February 1848 swept through Europe during the next year.
Working Class
The revolt of the lower classes, combined with an explosion of ____ ____ and assertions of ____ ____, set all of Europe aflame.
Nationalist Conflicts and Popular Sovereignty
Of the major countries only ____ and ____ were spared in the Revolts of 1848.
Britain and Russia
The Modern Nation State introduced what familiar concepts into daily life?
Mass Political Parties, Mass School Systems and Labor Unions.
The Modern Nation State (1850-1875) saw great political changes in what major European states?
Russia, France, Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary.
In the Pre-Marx era what were the three chief economic goals of early socialist thinkers?
A planned Economy, Greater Equality, and Ownership of income-producing property by the state rather than private parties.
In 1848 Marx and Engels published perhaps the most famous pamphlet in all of European history: The ____ ____.
Communist Manifesto
What is a form of political action by the working classes?
Syndicalism, it is founded on the belief that only the laboring classes and peasants should govern.
The British attempted to win reforms in their conditions of life and labor through the?
Chartist Movement in 1840’s.
The second Industrial Revolution accelerated several trends that had begun during the first. The four most important were?
Urbanization, Organization of labor, Social Reforms, and Mass democratic politics.
What was the ultimate goal of Marxist revolution according to Marx?
A communist society.
In 1906 the reformist, non-Marxist ____ ____ was formed on a platform of more equitable distribution of wealth.
Labour Party
The adaptation of Marxist socialism that aimed to introduce basic reform through parliamentary acts rather than through revolution was called?
Revisionism.
What was a strong rival to orthodox Marxism as the true path to the workers paradise?
Revisionism.