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82 Cards in this Set

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____, Greek hero of the Trojan War, whose goddess-mother dipped him in the river Styx, making him impervious to harm except on his ____. Independent actions to achieve ___ and his willingness to sacrifice anything for one ____ of eternal glory illustrate the Greek ideal of arête.
Achilles, heel, glory, moment)
(Hint: honor)
Became angry at King Agamemnon for failure to give ____, so left fellow Greeks and fought for solely for himself.
Menelaus's older brother, led expedition to rescue Helen and ten-year siege began.
(Hint: Mycenae)
King of ____ and married to Clytemnestra.
suffering, means to fight
heroism and nobility of character
Earliest Greek culture developed on the island of ____. When the Minotaur died, so did ____ civilization.
Crete, Cretan
(Hint: Minoan, Minos)
Called ____ after the legendary King ___ who ruled here.
___ is made by painting on wet plaster, which enhances the depth of the colors.
(Hint: Minon, dolphin)
In ____ palace several of the frescoes on the palace wall convey the relationship of the Minoans with the sea, such as the ____ fresco.
Sister of Clytemnestra, fell in love with Paris and fled with to Troy.
Where Troy was located, in modern day Turkey.
(Hint: nine)
Excavated by Heinrich Schliemann, ___ distinct phases or layers of its history.
Wrote the Iliad and the Odyessy, doubt about whether there ever was a bard named ____ or whether ____ was the name given to a group of bards or the bard who finally wrote down the epic.
A Minotaur, inhabited ___ ____, and each year a virgin from Crete was sacrificed to the beast.
The labyrinth
Capital of Crete, housed the labyrinth and a palace.
Wife was Helen, fought in the Trojon war.
____ was earliest Greek culture developed on the island of Crete. Wrote in Linear A and king was Minos
King of Crete, had a palace that housed a labyrinth. Gained control of ___ and made them sacrafice virgin every nine years.
Minos, Athens
Part-man and part-bull, inhabited the labyrinth, and each year a virgin from Crete was sacrificed to the beast.
(Hint: wife)
Supposedly created from Minos's ___ Pasiphea and Minos had it hidden in the labyrinth.
Warlike people who dominated the Aegean area, wrote Linear ___. City surrounded by massive walls with mountian for natural defense.
Mycenae, B
(Hint: Greek, Troy)
Indo-Europeans, migrated to the ____ mainland, most remembered for the war with ___.
One of most prominent Greek Trojan war heros, hero of Homer's Odyssey.
Credited with the idea of the Trojan ____.
____, son of the Trojan King Priam. He went to Greece and fell in love with Helen. They fled together to ____, Killed by ____ ____.
Paris, Troy, Achilles's son
King of Troy, murdered by Achilles' son just after he watched his city be destroyed.
____, wealthy German businessman, was an avid fan of Homer.
(Hint: Iliad)
From the geographic details in the ____, he deduced the whereabouts of Troy as Hisarlik.
Catalogues of ships that are historically accurate and names that in fact were names of Trojans. Author is ___.
The Iliad, Homer
(Hint: 10)
Recounts the last ___ days of Trojan War, contains repetitious phrases known as formularies.
____ tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus's return home after the Trojan War. His journey took ___ years.
The Odyssey, 10
____'s young woman was chosen for Minptaur sacrifice; rescued her from the labyrinth and killed the Minotaur.
Greek-speaking colony in Asia Minor, where Paris and Helen fled, later destroyed by Greeks.
____ was built on its ruins of VI. Ravaged and burned in about the 13th century, about the time of the legendary fall of Troy. Very likely Homeric Troy.
Troy VIIa
meaning "sown land," "to harvest"
truce that suspended any hostilities between various Greek city-states for up to three months so that all Greeks could freely participate in Olympics
equal land allotments divided by Spartan government to support the Spartan military
agricultural slaves who were bound to the land
a secret police that routinely went on random murdering sprees among the helots
free inhabitants of surrounding regions of Sparta, who were obligated to provide military support for Spartans
Spartan system of military training and education
barracks consisting of 15 males
upper class of soldiers who served as teachers to young boys and lovers
five of, checked and limited power of the kings who served for one year and were chosen by acclamation of Assembly, presided at the assembly, formulated issues for voting, military responsibilities
Council of 30, included the kings and elders, had to be from a noble family at least 60 years of age, the age at which military service to the state was completed
nine of them, originally governed Athens with specific functions
council of 500 members reconstructed by Cleisthenes for Athens’ government
military commander, one of the nine archons
Wrote the tradegy Eurmenides & the Persians (about the Battle of Salamis). Playwrite of Ancient Greece.
Starts with A
a branch of philosophy that examines the concept of beauty or beautiful things; it is often referred to as the "philosophy of art." "What did the Greeks find beautiful and why?"
Like Appearance
"The Philosopher." Student of Plato, believed the theatre was way to purge all unbalanced emotions. Was the first to categorize animals and plants by species and genus. Developed rules for the perfect tragic form in the Poetics. Sought the first principles of being, and his unified view of the cosmos was reflected in his activities in philosophy, logic, politics, biology, and drama, among other things. Defined techne.
Composed of all the Spartan male citizens (30 yrs +), chose the council members but its exact powers are debated.
Composed of all citizens, elected archons, drove Athenian Gov't.
a group coming together
Theseus's palace became the center of worship for the goddess of vegetation, fruits, birth, and fertility. Her plant was the olive tree. A wooden statue of her fell from the heavens. Made "patroness". Later, the patron goddess of the Mycenaeans, she sent two seprents to engulf Laocoon and his sons.
War-like Goddess
"The Birthplace of Democracy". Known for the culture it produced during the fifth-century B.C.E. Golden Age, one of the most profound intellectual and artistic cultures of the ancient world.
The Greeks defeated the Persians at this Battle in a direct charge across the plain of ---, Miltiades pinned the Persians against the swamps to their backs and led the Greeks to victory. A runner was dispatched to send word of the victory to the Athenians. He ran the 26 miles to Athens, delivered his message, and then died of exhaustion.
Battle of Marathon
Modern races of about the same distance are called marathons.
The last battle of the Persian Wars. Involved an alliance of Greek city-states Sparta, Athens, Corinth, Megara, and others against the Persians and with it the Persians were repelled from Greece.
Battle of Plataea
After the Athenians had defeated the Persians at sea at Salamis.
The Athenians fled the city and the navy hid behind some outcrops in the harbor of ---. Persians burned most sacred statue thought to have fallen from heaven. Confident that victory was near, the Persians allowed the Athenians to trick them into entering the small harbor. Once in the harbor, the Athenian ships swooped down on the Persians, who were trapped, and wiped out their navy.
Battle of Salamis
Battle of ---
The Spartans led a heroic last effort to stop Perisians at ---, whose name derives from the hot springs located here. Here the Persians sought to go through a path to get to Salamis, but were opposed by Thebans and Spartans in the mountains. The Persians suffered many casualties until a traitor gave them a seperate path to take and they came up behind the Spartans. King Leonidas was killed along with the men who chose not to flee - Xerxes mutilated his body, a taboo act which was later regretted.
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of ---
Athenian democracy really began in earnest when he took power, he wanted to further diminish the influence of power cliques, so he radically restructured the Council into a boule.
Starts with a C
The --- order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column and an ornate capital decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls
One of three types, starts with c
the Persians, under this man, conquered the Greek colonies of Ionia.
Cyrus the Great
Several Greek city-states formed this to protect the Greeks from future foreign invasions. Athens was the leader of this, which was centered on the island of Delos. Sparta refused to join and created one of its own. Later, Sparta's prediction proved right and Athens abused the funds from this league.
Delian League
A league
Athens was its "birthplace"; literally "rule by the people", from the Greek demos, "people," and kratos, "rule"
type of gov't
The Propylaea is considered a masterpiece of design, as it makes use of --- columns along the east and west sides, and a double row of -- columns. The --- order is the earliest form. The -- order column has characteristic paired scrolling volutes.
Doric, Ionic
Two types of archieture
Type of ruling in Sparta. According to legend the hero Heracles had twin sons, Eurysthenes and Proclus, from whom were descended the Agis family and the Euryphons, who held the two posts.
The kings judged cases concerning public roads, adoption and arranged marriages.
dual kingship
Double, two kings
Origionally named Alcides. A hero. He and his followers were banished from Mycenae & took possesion for Peloponnesus. Had twin sons.
Legend of the twelve labors; father is Zeus.
"Father of History"; Wrote Histories (not only chronicle the events of the Persian Wars, but also offer many insights into Greek customs and beliefs, as well as human nature.) Felt history was almost a Greek tragedy, whose heroes have "fatal flaws" (hamartia). Painted the Athenians as the great heroes of the war, and the Spartans as self-centered.
Foot Soldiers. Could form phalanx. Defined as a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. Usually very brutal attack.
Type of military formation
conquered by Cyrus the Great, rebelled against Perisian rule and asked Sparta (refused) then Athens (aided) to help, which led to the Persian invasion of Greece
Made of Greek colonies, connected to Greek life but away from main influence of Athens.
--- had revolted from Athenian control. Then -- also revolted (couldn't let go unchecked); Athenians wiped out every last male inhabitant of -- and enslaved the women and children.
Mitylene and Melos
rule by a few elite members of society
Means "the process of educating man into his true form, the real and genuine human nature" or "culture" Carried out by aristocrats.
Sparta is on the tip. IS a large peninsula in Southern Greece.
was a conflict between Athens, Sparta, and their respective allies,, as represented by the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues. Pericles's strategy was to gather the citizens of Athens into the Long Walls and to wait out the Spartan siege. The plan failed, and plague broke out within the close confines of the walls, taking Pericles as one of its first victims. Sparta defeated Athens in this war at Hellespont.
Peloponnesian war
Under the leadership of ---, Athens entered its golden age. Rebuild the Acropolis. Model statesmen; he could be seen from the earliest hours of the morning through the latest hours of the day scurrying from one civic responsibility to another. Athenian citizenship was restricted to native-born landholding males whose parents were also citizens. Died during the Pelo. War due to plague. Delivered a famous speech known as the Funeral Oration. Philosopher King.
Our main account of event from Herodotus. Four main battles. Persians defeated.
Persian Wars
Lacedaemonian term meaing "love feast", where eating and drinking together would create friends. Public Mess hall.
--- found the meaning of the universe in the eternal, changeless realm of the ideal forms. Was concerned above all else with the form of the Good, which he believed to be the basis for good government. As human souls once lived with the forms before entering bodies, he argued that all knowledge on earth is remembrance of things already known. Recorded teacher's words in the "dialogue"
Student of Socrates.
Greek God that struck a rock with a trident, revealing the sea, and one can still see a spring on the Acropolis. Had a contest with Athena over who would be the patron saint of the city.
Spartan Text with written laws - it was believed to be given to them by the god Pythia.
Reported to have reminded his fellow Athenians that "the unexamined life was not worth living." His questioning is still an ideal of western education today. Although he left no writings, his student Plato recorded many of his teachings in "Dialogues".
Athenian ruler, put as sole archon - had many reforms; divided Athenian society into four classes based on wealth. Created four tribes.
Solon's Reforms:
--- the export of wheat crops
--- olive oil, which created a very prosperous economy.
---citizenship to foreign artisans
--- debts of the hektemoroi (6 parters – farmers gave 6 parts of income to taxes), which benefited the debtors but hurt those who held the debts.
--- land from being used for collateral.
--- those sold into slavery for debts.
Forbidding, exporting, offering, abolishing, forbidding, freeing
Playwrite who wrote "The Oedipus Cycle"
Represented mathematical harmony, rational world, certain barometers that could be used to measure, Golden Mean; the seat of government and religious ritual; it was surrounded by the agora (marketplace), the cultural, social, and political heart of the city where such great thinkers as Plato taught, and by a theater.
The Acropolis
Spartan place for military. Life was rough here, meals taken in common, sleep on straw.
The barracks
Where Parthenon is located. An ancient Greek temple (for Athena and Poseidon).
The Erechtheon
Narrow passage of water. Xerxes had two bridges built across the width of the --- at Abydos in order that his huge army. Also where Sparta defeated Athens.
The Hellespont
Has a long and troubled history. Its origins date back to the sixth century B.C.E, when a second temple was built on the Acropolis next to the Erechtheon. This was the first ---, dedicated to Pallas Athena. After the battle of Marathon, the Athenians built a second temple dedicated to Athena next to the Erechtheon, which is where the --- which stands today. The Persians razed, but they did not throw out the debris, instead buried it as holy. Pericles rebuilt it. It was a monumental building achievement. It does not contain a single straight line and makes graceful use of Doric columns.
The Parthenon
Chief account of the Peloponnesian War is that of the Athenian general ---, who is known as the "father of scientific history" for his reliance on first-hand accounts or primary sources (though sometimes credibility is questioned). Was interested above all else in those lessons from history that might help others in the future. Wrote "The Funeral Oration of Pericles", beieved in Pericles abilities.
Means sparse or sparing. Relating to Spartian military.