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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Race
Differences in society were not due to skin color but environment.
Ethnicity
More cultural—language groupings, religious ties, dress standards and customs.
Lucy
(Ethiopia) 3.5 million years old; named Lucy because of Beatles song playing when she was discovered walked upright.
The last Ice Age
(France) 150,000 years ago-15,000 years ago; cave paintings in France. 3,000 calories a day. Major impact - allowed for the spread of people
Lascaux Cave Paintings
(France) 17,000 years old; contains nearly 2000 pictures. 3 categories: animals, human figurines, and abstract signs. Tell stories
Chatal Huyuk (site)
(Turkey/Anatolia) considered a true town where they had buildings/houses made of mud; unusual among early towns as it did not have walls. 7000 BC.
Ain Mallaha
(Israel) 11,000 BC;permanent settlement settled by hunters and gatherers. Proves there is no need for agriculture in order to be permanent.
Jericho
(Palestine: between Africa & Asia) 8500 BC; farming; 1500 people; Massive walls; tower
Sir William Jones
(India) studied the Indo-European culture, especially their writing (Sanskrit)
Indo-European(s)/ -Language Family
Sir William Jones says we must be related to the Indians because Sanskrit is so similar to the European languages.
Hittites
(Anatolia) forerunners of the Iron Age; developed manufacturing of iron in14th century BC. With use of bronze weapons and chariots, they were militarily superior.
Iron Age
The prehistoric period in any area during which cutting tools and weapons were mainly made of iron or steel.
Phoenicians
(Lebanon, Syria, & Palestine) organized into politically indep. city-states. Invented alphabet. survive collapse due to maritime technology
Mycenaeans
(Greece) 1600-1200 BC. Linear B script is early form of Greek writing. dependant on surplus; fell during the collapse of the bronze age 1200 BC.
The Collapse of the Bronze Age
Between 1206 and 1150 BCE, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and Egyptian Provinces in Syria and Canaan.
Four Noble Truths
(China)
1. Life Means Suffering;
2. Suffering comes from attachment
3. Suffering can stop
4. Stopping suffering-Eight-Fold Path
Oracle Bones
(China) Earliest Chinese writing, about 4,000 BC. (Shang dynasty). Element of religion or spiritual beliefs. Way of telling time (calendar).
Harappa(ns)
(India) Large cities in the Indus Valley. planning; surplus of agriculture: dual harvest. Shows dependence on rivers. there is a hierarchy and possibly a government.
Confucius
(China) 551-479 BC. Born in "Warring States Period." Had idea, "How should leaders and rulers govern?"
Confucianism Ideals
1. Humaneness
2. Righteousness
3. Reciprocity
4. Ritual order
Shang
(1700-1100 BC) A feudal state, meaning clan rulers exercised power over local government. Much of Chinese writing was developed during this period.
Hellenism
The international form of Greek culture. Swept across the lands of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East after Alexander the great's death (336-323 B.C.).
Narmer (Palette)
(Egypt) Been referred to as the earliest historical document in the world. Depicts Egyptian king. 30th century BC.
Zhou
(China) The collapse of the Zhou Dynasty around 700 BC led to the warring periods.
Bronze Bowls
(China) Same time as Oracle bones. From the Yellow River valley.Symbol of Zhou King's worship to their ancestors. 900's.
Dualism
Buddhist belief in the difference between consciousness and reality. may also refer to two gods.
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
(India) Spiritual leader who taught The 4 Noble Truths and The 8-Fold Path.
Sea Peoples
A diverse group of rulers, merchants, mercenaries, pirates, and out-laws. included many Mycenaeans. Pillaged Hittites & invaded but didn't conquer Egypt.
Israel vs. Judah
Israel refers to the ten tribes in north. Whereas Judah refers to those still in the south.
Mandate of Heaven
(China) Similar to Divine Right although the Mandate of Heaven could be taken away due to poor conduct.
Zarathustra
(Iran) Around 1200 BC. Also known by Greek name Zoroastor. Said to be the founder of Zoroastrianism. Likely to be founded in what is modern day Iran.
Cyrus the Great
(Persia-NE of Saudi) 559-530 BC; Emperor of Persia, which became the largest empire the world had ever known.
The Cyrus Cylinder
(Persia) Stated the political policy of Persia (tolerance, go back to homeland, etc.) writing; proclaims Cyrus the Great the leader of Persia
Bisitun Rock Relief
(Persia) 600 BC. Emperor Darius commissioned it. Structure of the Persian empire, importance of Zoroastrianism, and the vital role diversity plays in Persia.
Caste society
(India) 3 Level system, Rulers and warriors (kshatriyas), Priests (brahmins), and artisans, merchants, and agriculturalists (vaishyas). Later slaves (Sudras)
Warring States Period
480-211 BC. Confucius was born and lived (551-479 BC). His teachings were recorded in the Analects.
Arctic Land Bridge
During the Last Ice Age, freezing water allowed the Sea to go so low that it opened up a corridor between North America and Siberia (Alaska) for 50 to 100 years.
Sumerian
(Sumer) (3200-2334 BC) Numerous city states ruled by a divinely sanctioned king. Continuous wars, never unified.
Yellow River valley
(China) isolation and abundance. Rank based upon blood relationship with the clan leader.
Ganges river
(India) River located in India, feeds India's best agricultural lands. Buddhism originated near this river. Buddha taught near this river.
Persepolis
(Persia/Iran) A prominent Persian city - modern day Iran
Thermopylae
(Greece). Famed battle (movie 300) where Greeks stopped Persian advance.
Carthage
(Mediterranean) Wealthy and influential Phoenician city in South Mediterranean. Central trading. Romans defeated the Phoenicians by conquering this city.
Collapse: 1200 BC
Large scale upheaval of regional systems; “international” system fails, large city-states destroyed/abandoned; smaller settlements crop up.
Aftermath of 1200 BC Collapse
"secondary states," rise up Assyrians, Hittites/Mycenaean gone. The principle cause was most likely not invasion but economic upheaval due to climate change.
Jared Diamond (and arguments)
Success is due to Geography not Biology. 6 factors of animal domestication: 1: diet 2: growth rate 3: nasty disposition 4: problems breeding 5: social structure 6: tendency to panic
White Man’s Burden
The west would go to the "uncivilized" world and teach them how to be civilized. The idea of a superior race (whites)
Hammurabi
(Mesopotamia) Famous for the laws he established in Babylon similar to those in the Bible. Conquered the entire area of Mesopotamia (including Sumer) between 1793 and 1750 b.c.
Stoics
(Greece) Associated with Axial Age; "painted hall"; only good lies in VIRTUE: Virtue = conforming to the will of nature; connection to Buddhist theory; Nature rids suffering
Aryan
(India) A group of people that moved into India through the Himalayan Mountains. They were the only group of people to succeed at conquering a part of India by way of the mountains.
Rig Veda
The oldest Vedic text. The vedic text was written in sanskrit and it was a collection of hymns and such to various gods. This particular one focused on rituals.
Varnas
The different caste systems in India; (Brahmins-Priests, Kshatriyas-Warriors, Vaishyas-tradesmen, Shudras-peasants)
Philistines