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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
General Causes of WWI
-Alliance system
-Militarism and the Arms race
Bismarck's Goals
peace, isolate France, prevent war with the Balkans
Congress of Berlin 1878
Bismarck established peace between Austria, England, Russia, and Italy
Bismarck's Alliance Systems
1. 3 Emperor's League: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia. Said if one member went to war, others would stay neutral.
2. Dual Alliance: Germany, Austria, Hungary. If any member was attacked, others would come to their aid.
3. Triple Alliance: joined with France
4. Reinsurance Treaty: Agreement with Russia
Causes of Imperialism
-public opinion
Opium War
Chinese only had one port open to foreigntrade. British were their biggest consumer. British needed cash crop, sold opium to China. CHinese began to burn British opium ships and not pay for it. British go to war with China, the opium war. British slaughter chinese, force them to pay for all the lost opium and open more ports to western trade.
open door notes
equal commercial opportunity in China. Set up by John Hay.
Japanese launch a submarine attack on Russian naval base, Maine. Russians sent 38 warships around Africa to Japan. Met Japanese at Tiroshima. Only 4 british warsihps escaped. Japanese lost no ships. Teddy Roosevelt called both countries to New Hampshire to write apeace treaty.
Napoleon 3 wanted to connect the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. England wanted the canal.
warrior people, wanted to stop the English' push north through Africa. Defeated the British.
Boer War
Boers lived north of the Zulus, didn't want British in their land. Had gold, silver, diamonds, wanted by British. Took the British 3 years to supress the Boers. Unified Souh Africa.
Anglo-German tensions
Germany built large navy under Admiral Tirpitz. Wanted to be friends with England, thought building a navy more powerful than theirs would prevent them from going to war with them. England started increasing their navy to keep up.
Admiral Tirpitz
built German navy
built by Admiral Tirpitz, made other battleships obsolete.
William 2
Bismarck's successor. Antogonized England, said he was responsible for British victory over Boars, etc.
Triple Entente
alliance between Britain, Russia, and france
The Balkans
Hot spot of Europe.
WWI Immediate Cause
assassination of Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 austria asked germany to help them in a war against serbia, they agree. 7 days later, all of Europe is at war.
June 28, 1914
assassination of austrian king Franz Ferdinand (assasin paid by serbia). caused immediate outbreak of WWI.
Schlieffen Plan
German's military plan for the whole war. Tight timetable. Plan was a miserable failure. Had one battle with France, neither side won.
Nature of war
-long war
-total war
-destructive war
-new kind of war
Battle of Verdun
proceeded by a 12 1/2 hour canon shell bombardment from the germans against the french. germans could not break through french line. after a month, germans stop the offensive in july. french counterattack, try to break through german line until december. battle lasted 10 months.
Somme Battle
British commander haig launched a battle that would last 4 months, to try to pull Germans away from Verdun.
Battle at Tannenberg
Russians vs. germans. russians mobilize faster than Germans expected. German army left to guard against Russians was small, but uwas under the control of Hindenburg and Ludendorff. They heard the russians make plans over the radio, and completely destroyed them.
Easter Rebellion of 1916
German intelligence operation. Germany encouraged Irish to rebel against England to distract them. They did, but did not have enough artillery and were defeated.
The Russian Revolution
German intelligence operation. Germans sent Lenin to start a revolution in Russia. Nicholas was overthrown. Lenin came to power. SIgned Brest-Litovsk.
Zimmerman Telegram
Germany offered Mexico a military alliance with them. If America declared war on Germany, Mexico had to declare war on America. In turn, when Germany won the war, they would get back all the land they lost to America (except CA)
American Entrance to WWI
Germany was torpedoing passenger ships carrying americans. William 2 apologized, but then declared unrestrained submarine warfare. America entered the war.
british passenger ship sailing from NY to London. had women and children on board, for security that the ship wouldn't be attacked. Torpedoed by a german u-boat.
French passenger ship, torpedoed by germans while saying across the English Channel. some americans were on board.
John Pershing
commanded the American Expedition Force in WWI
Ludendorf and Hindenberg tell William 2 that its over, to try to cut a deal. William goes to Woodrow Wilson. Wilson refuses to see him, says he doesn't represent the German people. William resigned. Socialist provisional government was set up. With the armistice, Germans were forced to disarm themselves.
Felings about 14 point peace
1. David Lloyd George: GB. Said "hang the kaiser."
2. Clemenceau: French. Said "do whatever it takes to prevent German wars in the future.
3. Italy: Orlando. Only wanted land, left.
4. Woodrow Wilson: didn't force his 14 points, said democrats had won the war.
Treaty of Versailles
England, France, America, write the treaty. 14 points died quickly, except league of nations (14th point).
article 10--league of nations covenant
said if an attack on one, every other would come to its aid.
Treaty of Versailles Provisions
1. Rhineland made neutral
2. Alsace-Lorraine went back to France. German colonies were taken. Checklslovakia received German territory.
3. German military was cut back. artillery/tanks/battleships were taken.
4. Germany was fined 33 billion dollars
5. war guilt. treaty said germany was 100% responsible for the war.
Results of WWI
1. Austro-Hungarian empire ceased to exist. Ottoman Turkish empire ceased to exist. Prussia, Germany, and Austria declined.
2. Decline of Europe. London ceased to be financial capital of the world.
3. Lost generation
4. Psychological (war to end all wars)
5. Set the stage for WWII
French Commander Foch
said treaty of versailles would do nothing but delay a second war for 20 years
Russian Revolution
Rasputin was believed to be the root of all evil. He was murdered, troubles did not go away. People took to the streets. Army revolted against the government, formed a soviet government.
3 who made russian revolution
Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin
Joined the soviet revolutionists. Named his party bolsheviks. November: took power, Kerensky fled.
created the red army
joined the bolsheviks. took power on lenin's death, exiled trotsky, eventually had him assassinated.
Soviet Union
founded by Lenin. an elite group, ot the masses.
War Communism and NEp
under Lenin. War Communism, state controlled everything. Failure. NEP: a little capitalism. Incentive was given to workers. Huge success.
Stalin's 5 Year Plan
Economic plan. Said agriculture needed to produce 2-400% more. Took land from peasants, joined farms together. Anyone who revolted had their entire village destroyed.
Stalin's Great Purges
Stalin purged the Red Army and the party. It took years to rebuild the army
Weimar Government
German reich, before Hitler. Reichstag: legislative assembly; anyone could vote. Had a president. Equality before the law. Government controlled schools
Attacks on the Weimar Government
Sparticists: wanted world revolution, world socialism. Former German units were put back together to fight them. Sparticists revolted and took over. German "free corp" completely devestated them, ended the revolt. Sparticists lost power.
Kapp Putsch: revolution. Kapp led the revolutionists, the "free corp" units. Stormed Berlin, overthrew the government. President turned to the army, army refused to help. Free COrp took Berlin, Socialist party was overthrown. Only lasted a week.
Ruhr Crisis of 1923
Germans failed to make their payments to France. French occupied the Ruhr valley, saying they would not leave until Germans paid. Germans told workers in the Ruhr valley to go on strike. Government prints money for them, huge inflation occurs. Chancellor Stresemann comes to power and stops the depression.
Depression of 1929
another huge depression occurred in Germany (after the Ruhr crisis). Hitler came to power, stopped depression.
led Hitler's bodyguard (SS)
led Hitler's propaganda organization
Hitler's Germany
1. Consolidation of power
2. Gleichschaltung
3. Economy
Hitler's "smothering" reign. Gestapo and SD were created. Brown shirt leaders were eliminated, regular brown shirts were sent to the army to be trained. Army was made to swear allegiance to him. Hitler had absolute control over every area of life.
Locarno Treaty
Germany, France, Belgium. All 3 countries would respect each other's borders.
Washington Conference
Naval arms race between Japan, US, and England. ENgland wanted out of the treaty with US and Japan, but didn't want to anger Japan. Led to the Washington Conference, with Hughes. Made the 4, 5, and 9 power treaties.
Kellog-Briant Pact
Briand: french foreign minister. Wanted to tie America to their alliance system. Asked America to sign a treaty saying they will not declare war on each other. Kellog (US foreign minister), opened it up to the world. Briand was furious. 55 nations joined, including Germany. Said they would not use war to solve problems. Immediately after signing, US began to build navy.
Mussolini wanted to re-estsablish the Holy Roman Empire. Invaded Abyssinia, in Ethiopa. League of Nations made a list of sanctioned items that could not be sold to Italy. England was afraid of the italian navy. Italy used poison gas on the Ethiopians, the world did nothing. Proved article 10 of the league of nations didn't work.
Spanish Civil War
Power was taken away from Catholics. Large land owners were forced to give land to peasants. Catholics/landowners revolted against the Republic. War broke out. Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to ranco, revolutionist leader. Soviet Union sent aid to the republic. Franco won, took over power. Hitler and Mussolini became friends.
In Checklslovakia. Bordered Germany. Hitler was angered by the way Germans were being treated in Cheklslovakia. Demanded Sudatenland be given to Germany. British prime minister Chamberlain flew to Germany 3 times to discuss the matter with Hitler in Munich . SIgned an agreement that Checklslovakia belonged to Germany. Hitler invaded Cheklslovakia in the "rape of prague".
Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact
Stalin and Hitler signed a non-aggression pact. Says when Germany takes over Poland, Russia will get half of it. WWII began 8 days later.