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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Reasons of the Mongol Success
The success of the Mongols in ruling was territories was due in large part to their willingness to incorperate other ethnic groups into their armies and government. Whatever their orginal country or religion, those who served the Mongols loyally were rewarded and given important post. In the Mongols eyes the purpose of fighting was to gain riches, they regularly would loot the settlements they cinquered, taking whatever they wanted, including the residents.
Life of Pure "Nomadism" - Boom and Bust Cycles
Way of life of peoples who do not live continually in the same place but move cyclically or periodically. It is based on temporary centers whose stablity depends on the avaliable food supply and the technology for exploiting it.
Pax Mongolica
"Mongol Peace" is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the alleged stablising effects of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural, and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory they conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. This term is also used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration.
Tripitaka Koreanna
Korean collection of the Busshist scriptures and the Sanskrit word (Tripitaka), carved 81,340 wooden printing blocks in the 13th century. It is the world's most comprehensive and oldest intact version of Buddhist canon in Chinese scrpit (52,382,960 characters, 1,496 titles, and 6,568 volumes). The historical value of this artifact comes from the fact that it is the most complete and accuarate extant collection of Buddhist treaties, laws, and scriptures.
Minamoto Yoritomo
This name from Kamakura, a city near Tokyo that was the seat of the Minamoto Clan. The founder of the Minamoto Clan was Yorimoto. He set up military governers to oversee the military and enforce the law in the Provinces. He became shogun or general-in-chief over the Minamoto Clan, controlling the land as he did with his estates.
The Gupta Empire
Lasted from 320 - 480 BCE. This empire controlled northern India, along with Nepal and the Indus Valley. This empire was modeled after the Mauryan Empire; the founder took the name of the founder of that dynasty, Chandragupta. The real creator of the empire was Chandragupta's son. Their administrative system drew their revenue from tax on argiculture and metal and salt . . .etc. The kings of this empire were patrons of the arts, this time was also the rise of epic poems and Indian dramas.
Estimated to have a million residents, ten market places, and forty or fifty shop there every day. It was a Southern Song economic revolution, giving oppurtunities to ordinary people. The southern part of CHina had it much better than northern CHina.
Bound Feet
Began during the Song dynasty, it was in the attempts of the women to beautify themselves. They would bind the feet of girls ages 5 to 8 years with long cloths, doing this made walking very difficult. It was hoped that the girl would be judged more beautiful. It steadily grew into northern and central China, and spreading into all classes.
Zhu Xi
1130 - 1200 BCE. Created the movement of Neo COnfusicanism. Besides serving in office, he wrote, complied, or edited almost a hundred books, corresponded with dozens of other scholars, and still regularly taught groups of disciples. He was treated as a political threat during his lifetime; within decades of his death his writings came to be considered orthodox.
The emergence of the Samurai was made possible by the development of private landed states. Local lords organized provate armies of samurai to protect the land that they lived on, since the govenment failed to keep accuarate records of who owned the land.
Hojo Regency and The Mongols
This regency was created by Yorimoto. When he died the son eventually took over, and then in 1229 this family reduced the shogun to a figurehead. THis family also held the reins of power until 1333. THe Mongols tried to attack the Hojo regency, but because of a "divine wind" it repelled the Mongols.
Lady Murasaki
The literary masterpiece of 1010 is the tale of Genji, written in Japanese by this author. This long work, the first novel ever written in any language. depicts court life, with close attention to diolouge and personality.
These people were also known as the "Norsemen" who were from Scandinavia. These German pagans made deep excursions into Europe, from Iceland and Ireland to Russia. They also influenced Europeans' political, economic, and social institutions. These people were superb seamen with many advanced methods of boatbuilding. There are disagreements as to why this group migrated - maybe due to overpopulation, or they were seeking people to trade with.
Magna Carta
It is known as the "Great Charter" and became the cornerstone of English justice and law. Signifies the proncilple that the king and the govenment shall be under the law that everyone must obey. Some clauses contain the germ of the ideas of due process of law and the right to a fair and speedy trial. Every English king in the Middle Ages reissued this as evidence of their promise to observe the law.
Was a large movement toward education and scholastics in Europe during the Middle Ages. There was an influx of students eager for learning and the presence of dedicated and imaginative teachers created the atmosphere in which universities grew. In northern Europe - at Paris and later at Oxford and Cambridge in England - associations of guild of professors organized universities. University faculties grouped themselves together according to academic disciplines, or schools - law. medicine, arts, theology. These professors were known as scholastics and we the foundation of scholasticism.
In the classical period, this tribe attained a level of intellectual and artistic achievement equaled by no other Amerindian people and by few peoples elesewhere. These people developed a sohisticated system of writing, perhaps derived partly from the Olmecs. They invented a calender more accurate than the European Gregorian calender.
Fujiwara no Michinaga
He was a man from the Fugiwara family in Japan. This family reached the peak of their glorious rule under him. He dominated the court for more than thirty years. He aquired great land holdings and built fine palaces for himself and his famliy. After ensuring that his sons could continue to rule, he retired to a Buddhist monastery, all the while continuing to exercise most of the control himself.
During the classical period, this city was located in central Mexico and witnessed the glowering of a remarkable civilization built by a new people from regions east and south of the Valley of Mexico. It has a population of 200,000 which was larger than any European city at the time. This city was a great commercial center for trade and culture for all of Mesoamerica. The inhadbitants were stratified into distinct social classes.
Aztec Religion
Another word for this religion is Mexica. In their society, religion was the dynamic factor that transformed other aspects of the culture: economic security, social moblity, education, and war. War was an article of religious faith. Their religion gave them powerful advantages over other groups in central Mexico and it inspired them to conquer vast territories in a remarkably short time. This relgion had a chief God that symbolized the blazing moon. The sun, the source of all life has to be kept moving in its orbit if darkness was not to overtake the world. This religion believed that human sacrafice was a sacred duty. Someday this human sacrafice served to regulate population growth while others say that people were given the blood of sacrafices as source of protein.
Inca Inperialism
In 1000 BCE one of many small groups fighting among themselves for land and water. This ruler claimed that in order to live in royal style, and strengthen his administration he had to win his own possensions by means of war and imperial expansion.
Charles the Great
He was the grandson of Charles Martels. Under his rule, a new kind of social and political organizations later called feudalism appeared. For the first time since the collapse of the Roman Empire, most of western Europe was united under one govenment which reached its peak when Charlamange was ruling.
Development of fief-holding (European Feudalism)
In an ideal feudal society the king owned the land. The feudal method of holding land was by fief; the grantor of the fief was the suzerain, or overload, and the recipient was a the vassal. The fief was formally acquired following the ceremony of homage. The vassal swore an oath of fealty, vowing serving in the army. After the ceremony the lord invested the vassal with the fief, usually by giving him some symbol of transferred land.
Manorial System
Involved the services of the peasants class. The economic power of the warrior class rested on the land estates, which were worked by peasants. Peasants needed protection, and lords demmanded something in return for the protection. Free farmers surrendered themselves and their lord's jurisdiction. The for the land back but they were tied to the land by various payments and services. Certain practices became common everywhere such as the peasant has to give a certain percentage of the annual harvest, pay a fine to marry someone that was outside of the lord's estate, and pay a fine to inherit property. The peasant lost his freedom and became a serf bound to the land and unable to leave wihtout the lord's permission.
The Crusades
Holy wars sponsered by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The wars rose out of the long conflict between Christians and Muslims in Spain. Many people of all ages and classes participated in the Crusades but so knights participated that it became known as a feature of the upper-class lifestyle.
The Black Death
The rapid transfer of people and goods throughout Europe spread diseases in Europe. This was known as one of the most deadly plagues. In 1347 ships from from Crimea to Russia brought the bubonic plague to Messina, where it spread to Sicliy and into Italy. Evetually all of felt the curse of the disease. The flea is found in rodents that traveled to Europe by ship. This plague had two forms bubonic and pneumonic. Urban conditions were ideal as well as unsanitary conditions. Symptoms started with a large growth ot boil in the armpit, groin or neck and led to black spots or blotches from bleeding under the skin and lastly the victim began to cough or spit blood.
The Hundred Years' War
Struggle between the English and the French monarchies fought between 1337 and 1453 which represents a major political crisis. The English claimed Aquitaine as an ancient feudal inheritance and paid homage to Phillip VI and in 1337 he exercised full jurisdiction and confisticated the duchy and French policy was strongly expansionist. This action was the intermediate cause of the war. The war presented unusual oppurtunities for wealth and advancement, poor and unemployed knights were promised regualar wages. The war was mainly random sieges and cavalry raids. Joan of Arc was a huge reason for French success.
The Great Schism
This was the even that divided Chalcdonian Christianity into Latin Western Catholicism and Greek-Byzantine Eastern Orthodoxy. This was actually the result of an extended period of estragement between the two churches. The primary causee of the Schism were disputes over papal authority. The Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern Greek - speaking patriachs. The church split along doctrinal, theological, liguistic, political and geographic lines, and the fundamental breach has never been healed.
John Wyclif
He was an English theoligian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. He made an English translation of the Bible in one complete edition. This was considered a precursor of the Protestant Reformation.
Wang Kon
The son of a gentry famliy became the first minister of kung ye. Overthrowing Kung Ye for misdemnors and malpractice in 918 he saught and received the support of landlords and merchants whose economic as well as political power overwhelmed the Shilla government. He raided Latter Paekche in 934 and accepted the abdication of King Kyongsun of SHilla in 935. The following year he conquered Latter Paekche and unified the Korean Peninsula.