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95 Cards in this Set

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Romanticism
-Challenged authority
-Individualistic
-Looked to nature
-Believed in following their heart
-Presented against 18th century realism
Goethe
-Romanticist
-Wrote Faust, about a man who wanted to live forever and marry Helen of Troy. Made a deal with the devil, breaks it to help humanity
Sir Walter Scott
Romaonticist
Wrote Ivanhoe
Lord Byron
Romanticist
Poet
Member of the English house of lords
Wrote "Don Juan"
Conservatism
Followed historic traditions: monarchy, state church, aristocracy, etc. If it was taken away, caused anarchy
Liberalism
Everyone is considered equal. Accumulation of property and wealth make people rise to positions of power
Laisez-Faire
Government stay out of our business
Socialism
not an ideology, a way of life. Basic concept: government should destroy the profit motive as the driving force in economic life. Takes over the means of production and transporation. Government controls everything. Most socialism advocates were aristocrats and upper middle classes.
Robert Owen
Created a socialist society in New Lanark, Scotland. Paid his workers the best salary of anyone in English factories. They produced more than any factory in England.
Karl Marx
Developed Marxism. Had his own brand of socialism, said it was desirable and inevitable. said conflict brought about a new world. One of his workers was Frederick Engels. They wrote The Communist Manifesto, and later, Das Kapital.
Darwinism
Darwin was a natural scientist (biologist). Shocked the world with "The Origin of Species". Said all species have evolved through a long process, from less complex to more complex. When change takes place, a species can refuse to adapt or become extinct. He called this natural selction, we call it survival of the fittest.
Herbert Spencer
Created Social Darwinism. Took Darwin's biological concepts and applied them to society in general. Said human society pass through the process of natural selection. Said man should leave man alone.
John D. Rockefeller
Social Darwinist, said the growth of a large business is merely "the survival of the fittest". Finance a Baptist university, but said society needed to be pruned.
Postwar Depression
Severe economic depression after England's war. The army and navy was downsized, there was a transition from making war materials to making consumer goods.
Peter-loo Massacre
In the postwar depression in Great Britain. 50,000 workers assembled in Manchester to rally for better work conditions. The English cavalry comes and kill 11, wound several hundred.
Tory Reform
Robert Peel, a tory, abolished the death penalty in 200 different cases. Made legal reforms. created a professional police force in London called "New Scotland Yard". Crime in London went down. Other place began to imitate what Peel had done. Cops were called "Peelers". Now called "Bobbies".
Catholic Emancipation: The Test Act was repealed. Overnight, many Catholics were elected to parliament.
Great Reform Bill of 1832
All men in the middle class were permitted to vote.
Chartism
Feargus O'Connor and a group of workers tried to force parliament to pass their charger for better work conditions. If they did not accept, they would cause a nation-wide strike. Parliament ignored it, the chartist movement faded away.
Anti-Corn Law League
Middle-class movement, wanted free-trade. Led by Richard Cobden. Said tariffs should be removed so England could dominate foreign trade. Potato famine hit Ireland, Parliament scrapped the Anti-corn law.
Louis XVIII (18)
French. Napoleon's relative. Invaded France with 60 men and was thrown in jail for life. Escaped to England. When the revolution started, he returned and took power.
Charles 10
French king. Kind but politically stupid. Wanted to give emigres back their land. Said he got his political advice from the Virgen Mary. While he was on a hunting trip, a revolution started in the streets. He quit and retired to Scotland.
July Monarchy
the reign of French Louis Philippe. He loved the middle class. His monarchy (July Monarchy) was directionless, disliked.
Adolphe Thiers
Wrote a volume praising Napoleon
Guizot Period
Guizot began a period of governmental corruption. Economic chaos reigned. Even the middle class was upset.
Decembrist Revolt
Russian. Alexander died, his older brother Constantine should have been next king. He didn't want to be, told younger brother Nicholas I to be. Rumors spread that Nicholas had stolen the throne from Constantine. December 14, the palace guard and some officers started chanting against Nicholas. Nicholas sent his loyal soldiers to disperse them. They fired into the crowd, and eventually the rallyers surrendered. Revolt only lasted a few hours.
Nicholas I
Russian king. Cold, authoritative. After Decembrist Revolt, didn't know how to control the people. Created the Third Section. Wanted to indoctrinate children, ignored art, literature, etc.
Third Section
Created by Nicholas I of Russia to control the people. Policemen, above the law and outside the law. Struck fear in all Russians.
Berschenschaften
German fraternity, devoted to political and moral regeneration in Germany. Met, spoke against Conservatives, burned books. 1819, ran into trouble. A playwright was murdered by a Berschenschaften student. In the Carlsbad Decrees, the Berschenschaften was dissolved.
Carlsbad Decrees
Meeting was called in Carlsbad, Germany, to decide what to do with the radical Berschenschaften students. Berschenschaften was dissolved.
Prussia
When reorganized after Napoleon's destruction, was the most liberal state. Overnight it became extremely conservative.
Zollverein
Prussian-denominated economic union in Germany. Got rid of internal tariffs, economy soared. All German states except Austria joined the Zollverein.
French Revolution of 1848
Middle classes wanted to get rid of Guizot. Students, workers, etc. took to the streets. The next day, Louis Philippe fired Guizot. Rallyers celebrated, went to visit Guizot Were met by a small contingent of the military in the street; neither group would back up to let the other pass. A civilian shoved a torch into an officer's face. a shot was fired, then more. 50 civilians were killed.
National Workshop
Parisians had to show up daily to get their work assignments. They got 2 franks a day. If there were no jobs left, they got 1 frank. Other people in France heard of this and flocked to Paris. After a group of workers held representatives hostage, the National Workshop was closed down. Non-Parisians were told to leave, young people were told to join the army, Parisian workers were told to find a job within a certain number of days or leave the city. They were furious. The army was called in, 1500 workers were killed.
Magyars
Demanded independence in Austria, said they would rule themselves in local matters. King agreed.
King Frederick William 4
Prussian King. Refused to reform Prussian society until he heard Metternich was fired; then gave the people a constitutional assembly. They went to Berlin to thank him. The Palace Guard told them to go home, they refused. Shots were fired, dozens were killed.
2nd Republic
French republic. Louis Napoleon was chosen as president of the Republic. He created a bank, financed railroads, built wider streets, and tried to be friends with England.
Military Commander Windischgratz
fought the revolutioners in Austria. Brutally suppressed the Magyars. The Austrians brutality sickened the Russians.
Frankfort Assembly
600 representatves were sent to write a constitution uniting Germany. They chose Prussian monarch Frederick William 4 as their king. He refused to take a crown from the "idiot middle class". Frankfort Assembly failed.
Humiliation of Olmutz
German Confederation met at Olmutz to attempt re-unification again, after the Frankfort Assembly. Austria was there. Prussia was humiliated because they had failed.
Mazzini
Italian, the soul of the Italian Unification. Born in Piedmont. Founded Young Italy, a secret nationalistic movement. Attracted support because of his beauty, courage, enthusiasm, and optimism. Wanted Italy united so it could lead the world to a better future.
Cavour
Brain of the Italian Unification. Greatest ambitino was to increase the material and political strength of his country. Became prime minister. Master practitioner of "Realpolitik"--a system in which the end justifies the means. Anticlerical. Sought to make over Piedmont on the English model. Instituted a domestic reform program that made Piedmont the most progressive of the states of Southern Europe.
Victor Emmanuel
Itallian king of Piedmont. Detested the Piedmontest nationalist Cavour.
Garibaldi
Sword of the Italian Unification. Met mazzini and became a member of Young Italy, took a solemn oath to fight injustice and to unify Italy. Was exiled to Latin America, became a talented soldier. Returned to Italy with his private army. Declared himself ruler of Sicily. Within 2 months he had conquered the entire island. Remembering his oath to free all of Italy, he planned an invasion of the Papal states and the liberation of the Holy City. Cavour rushed Piedmontese forces across the papal states into Naples, and convinced Garibaldi that the people of Naples wanted to unite with Piedmont. The population united with Piedmont, and soon after, the Papal states joined as well. Garibaldi surrendered his conquests to Victor Emmanuel.
Austro-Italian War of 1859
Austria threatened war, Cavour knew Piedmont couldn't face them alone and went to Louis Napoleon for help. An alliance was drawn up where France would come to Piedmont's aid if it found itself at war with Austria. Fighting was conducted with a lack of decisiveness on both sides. Napoleon halted the French forces, badly shaken by his losses. He abandoned Piedmont and made a quick deal with Austria, the treaty of Villafrance. Treaty said Piedmont got Lombardy, Austria gept Venetia, and Italy would be organized into a confederation under papal leadership. Cavour was furious, turned out teh treaty was unenforcable.
Ausgleich
Transformed the Hapsburg empire into the Dual Monarchy, comprising two independent and equal states with one ruler, one Imperial Army, and a joint ministry with response for foreign policy, military affairs, and financial maters.
Zollverein
Prussian-denominated economic union in Germany. Got rid of internal tariffs, economy soared. All German states except Austria joined the Zollverein.
French Revolution of 1848
Middle classes wanted to get rid of Guizot. Students, workers, etc. took to the streets. The next day, Louis Philippe fired Guizot. Rallyers celebrated, went to visit Guizot Were met by a small contingent of the military in the street; neither group would back up to let the other pass. A civilian shoved a torch into an officer's face. a shot was fired, then more. 50 civilians were killed.
National Workshop
Parisians had to show up daily to get their work assignments. They got 2 franks a day. If there were no jobs left, they got 1 frank. Other people in France heard of this and flocked to Paris. After a group of workers held representatives hostage, the National Workshop was closed down. Non-Parisians were told to leave, young people were told to join the army, Parisian workers were told to find a job within a certain number of days or leave the city. They were furious. The army was called in, 1500 workers were killed.
Magyars
Demanded independence in Austria, said they would rule themselves in local matters. King agreed.
King Frederick William 4
Prussian King. Refused to reform Prussian society until he heard Metternich was fired; then gave the people a constitutional assembly. They went to Berlin to thank him. The Palace Guard told them to go home, they refused. Shots were fired, dozens were killed.
2nd Republic
French republic. Louis Napoleon was chosen as president of the Republic. He created a bank, financed railroads, built wider streets, and tried to be friends with England.
Military Commander Windischgratz
fought the revolutioners in Austria. Brutally suppressed the Magyars. The Austrians brutality sickened the Russians.
Frankfort Assembly
600 representatves were sent to write a constitution uniting Germany. They chose Prussian monarch Frederick William 4 as their king. He refused to take a crown from the "idiot middle class". Frankfort Assembly failed.
Humiliation of Olmutz
German Confederation met at Olmutz to attempt re-unification again, after the Frankfort Assembly. Austria was there. Prussia was humiliated because they had failed.
Mazzini
Italian, the soul of the Italian Unification. Born in Piedmont. Founded Young Italy, a secret nationalistic movement. Attracted support because of his beauty, courage, enthusiasm, and optimism. Wanted Italy united so it could lead the world to a better future.
Cavour
Brain of the Italian Unification. Greatest ambitino was to increase the material and political strength of his country. Became prime minister. Master practitioner of "Realpolitik"--a system in which the end justifies the means. Anticlerical. Sought to make over Piedmont on the English model. Instituted a domestic reform program that made Piedmont the most progressive of the states of Southern Europe.
Victor Emmanuel
Itallian king of Piedmont. Detested the Piedmontest nationalist Cavour.
Garibaldi
Sword of the Italian Unification. Met mazzini and became a member of Young Italy, took a solemn oath to fight injustice and to unify Italy. Was exiled to Latin America, became a talented soldier. Returned to Italy with his private army. Declared himself ruler of Sicily. Within 2 months he had conquered the entire island. Remembering his oath to free all of Italy, he planned an invasion of the Papal states and the liberation of the Holy City. Cavour rushed Piedmontese forces across the papal states into Naples, and convinced Garibaldi that the people of Naples wanted to unite with Piedmont. The population united with Piedmont, and soon after, the Papal states joined as well. Garibaldi surrendered his conquests to Victor Emmanuel.
Austro-Italian War of 1859
Austria threatened war, Cavour knew Piedmont couldn't face them alone and went to Louis Napoleon for help. An alliance was drawn up where France would come to Piedmont's aid if it found itself at war with Austria. Fighting was conducted with a lack of decisiveness on both sides. Napoleon halted the French forces, badly shaken by his losses. He abandoned Piedmont and made a quick deal with Austria, the treaty of Villafrance. Treaty said Piedmont got Lombardy, Austria gept Venetia, and Italy would be organized into a confederation under papal leadership. Cavour was furious, turned out teh treaty was unenforcable.
Ausgleich
Transformed the Hapsburg empire into the Dual Monarchy, comprising two independent and equal states with one ruler, one Imperial Army, and a joint ministry with response for foreign policy, military affairs, and financial maters.
Pan Slavism
King Franz Joseph promised to elevate Bohemia to the same position as Austria and Hungary, the Austrian Germans and Magyars prevented him. Czechs never forgave him. Czechs and other Slavic people grew more poutspoken. Originally Pan-Slavism had advocated a cultural community in which Slavic heritage and language would be honored and taught. Now it was replaced by a new political brand, which thought in terms of a federation of Slavic people free from Austro-Hungarian control.
Sigmeund Freud
Jewish by culture, athiest. Studied nervous diseases. Believed their root cause was sexual repression. Developed psychoanalysis.
Max Weber
Born in Germany, worked in the area of sociology. Called the "father of the academic field of socioloty". Wrote "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism". Called the "protestant work ethic" the additino of ethics and morality to capitalism.
Friedrich Nietzsche
Warned Germany about its compplacency and vulgarity. Appalled by its anti-Semitic movement. Detested modern political systems and ideas. Wrote "Thus Spoke Zarathustra", which argued that kindness, generosity, and love were virtues as long as they sprang from strength. Hailed the coming of the "ubermensch"--the superman.
David Frederick Strauss
German theologian and philosopher, insisted that the Gospel narratives should be studied like any other book. Wrote "Life of Jesus", said miracles were myths. Eventually gave up his faith in God.
James Frazer
Notable writer in the field of anthropology and comparative religion. Wrote "The Golden Bough". Used anthropology as a weapon to dispatch Christianity as superstition.
Otto von Bismarck
Political Architect of the German unification. Worked for the German gov as prussian ambassador.
Moltke
Military architect for German unification. Helped Bismarck. Gave him a reorganized Prussian army. Brilliant in war, wouldn't quit until he had completely destroyed an enemy.
Constitutional Crisis
Prussianking, william I (military general), told government to lengthen Prussian military enlistment period from 2-3 years, and double the size of the army. Gov refused, he made them anyway. Gov told him to revoke the changes or they would take away his budget. King called Bismarck to be Chancellor of Prussia.
Schleswig-Holstein
German battle, proved Molstke's new army and tactics worked.
Anglo-Prussian war of 1866
Bismarck created war: Prussia vs. every other German state. War lasted 7 weeks. Moltke had a new weapon: breech loader gun. Austrian generals knew they couldn't win, they didn't know how to use their artillery. They were soundly defeated. 20% of their army was killed. Moltke wanted to keep going to defeat the other 80%. Bismarck said Moltke could chase them but he would resign. King told Moltke to shut up. Ended the German Confederation.
Hohenzollern Candidacy
Spain kicked out their monarch and asked Prussian Leopold to be their next monarch. French didn't want Prussia above and below them, told him to refuse. Ambassador told King William to sign an oath saying that a Hohenzollern would never rule again. He refused. Bismarck released the letter to the press, a war was started (Franco-Prussian War)
Franco-Prussian War
Started by the Hohenzollern Candidacy. Sedan: tremendous Prussian victory. Many French were taken captive, including Napoleon 3. Treaty of Frankfort: Prussia told France to pay them 5 billion for war costs. Results: completed German Unification (2nd reich)
Bismarck's reich
No equal government, dozens of political parties.
Kulturkampf
culture struggle. Roman Catholic Church refused to follow Bismack. He made anti-Catholic laws. The pope was furious, cut off relations with Prussia. Bismarck realized it would not work to cut them off, his kultur kamp ended.
William II
German king, followed Bismarck. Likeable, hated the English. Often said outlandish statements.
Zabern Affair
Alsace Lorraine: French territory taken by Germany. Military tried to germanize the people. German soldiers were told by their lieutenant that if they kill Alsace-Lorraine people, he would pay them. Statement was leaked to the newspaper. Next week, he told soldiers to urinate on the French flag. Again it was leaked. Military ransacked the newspaper office looking for the source of the leak. Military leader in Berlin told the Alsace-Lorraine commander to control the civilians. He began to arrest anyone who spoke against Germany. French had great desire for revenge.
Alexander II
Russian king. Freed the serfs, made everyone equal under the law, instated trial by jury, sanitary reforms.
Alexander III
Russian king. Increased illiteracy in Russia so the people would not read radical material.
Nicholas II
Russian king, son of Alexander III. Married german, Alexandra. Had only one son, a hemophilic. Rasputin had special healing poewrs, healed the prince. Russians believed Rasputin ruled Russia because of the power he had over the prince's parents.
Witte and Industrialization
Witte was the Russian economic manager. Realized they needed Western help, had the westerners bring in new technology.
Revolution of 1905
Russian. Rural masses were taken into the army and the people began to starve because there was no one there to harvest the crops. Father Gapon and a crowd of people went to Nicholas' winter palace. The palace guard fired into the crowd. All of St. Petersburg was in an uproar, then all of Russia, and the revolution started.
Stolypin and Agricultural Reform
Stolypin proposes an agricultural and demographic reform. He was assinated by a student
Reform Bills of 1867 and 1884
in England, allowed every male adult to vote (but only 1 vote per household)
Women's Suffrage
In Great Britain, led by the Pankhursts (mother and daughter team). Became militant. 1919, adult women (age 30) won the right to vote, because during WWI they worked and pulled their own weight.
Disraeli
English. Jewish novelist. Joined the conservative political party, was prime minister twice. Secured the Suez Canal. Instituted Tory Democracy: only the elite know what is good for the co mmon man. Made reforms: pure food and drug act, housg codes.
Tory Democracy
Started in England by Disraeli. Said only the elite know what is good for the common man.
Gladstone
British. Prime minister 4 times. Evangelical Christian. Instituted free elementary education. Higher education followed. made civil service reforms: anyone who wanted to work for the gov took a civil service exam. Made a rule that the Irish could not be kicked off their land. Tried to make a law giving them home rule, was unable to enforce it because of WWI.
Webbs and the Fabians
The Webbs formed the Fabisn: a utopian socialist group.
Kier Hardie
Miner, helped miners and other working groups from labor parties
Taff Vale
law prohibiting workers from striking. Later repealed.
Third Republic in France
Many political parties. President was a powerless figurehead. 3 major problems: Boulanger Crisis, Panama Scandal, and Drefus Affair.
Boulanger Crisis
Occured in France's 3rd republic. They wanted french on Germany, wanted Alsace-Lorraine back. Nationalists and businessmen joined together, they said anyone who took focus away from getting revenge were traitors. Scandal was uncovered with the president. Boulanger was chosen as their leader. He ran for congress and was elected. Rumors spread that he was going to steal power. He was subpoenaed, and ran away.
Panama Scandal
The man who got the Suez Canal started working on the Panama Canal, needed funds. Sold bad stocks. Scandal was uncovered: a man had been going to bribe politicians and journalists. The man mysteriously died. Press got hold of a book with names of politicians who had taken the bribe. They were published. Next election, the politicians were kicked out of office.
Dreyfus Affair
French cleaners cleaning the German embassy in Paris discovered a note from someone selling the German French military secrets. Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was charged with reason/espionage. Trial was rigged. Sentenced to life in prison. 2 years later, George Picquart realized military secrets were still being sold to Germand. Discovered General Esterhazy, who was really the traitor. Military refused to listened to him, he was reassigned to Algeria. Before going, he gave his info to the press. Esterhazy was put on rigged trial and let go. Picquart was arrested for slandering a fellow officer. Army didn't want to admit they had made a mistake. Major Henry, who forged documents to make Dreyfus look guilty, commited suicide but left behind a note saying what he'd done. Dreyfus was brought back and put on trial again; it was rigged worse than before. He was sent back to prison for 5 more years. People were furious. President "pardoned" him. People wanted him cleared of all charges, not just pardoned. Finally he was declard innocent, put back into the army as major, and paid 11 years of back-pay. After the Dreyfus affair, Jews were loved and Catholics were hated. There were major changes in the military and the Roman Catholic Church.