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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axis I holds what dx. categories?
Clinical disorders (almost all mental disorders and "other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention". ex. marital, partner, relational problems.
Axis II holds what dx. categories?
Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
Difference between Axis I & II
Axis I are more visible to the lay person, depression is usually recognized by someone. Personality disorders are more subtle and MR may look like a developmental problem
Axis III holds what dx. categories?
General Medical Conditions
Axis IV holds what dx. categories?
Psychosocial/environmental problems ex. job loss, economic problems, divorce, social system deficits, legal issues
Axis V holds what dx. categories?
GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
1=lowest level of functioning
10=highest level of functioning
always specifcy the time frame at eval.
What is the GAF score cutoff for hospitalization?
50 or below; GAF higher than 50 an indication of milder symptoms.
define: polythetic criteria sets
to receive a dx. you do not have to meet all criteria, rather, you have to meet a portion of the criteria to receive a dx. The number required to be dx. varies with disorder.
when are childhood disorders 1st identified?
in childhood
when are adult disorders 1st identified?
in adulthood
Name the 5 general areas of childhood disorders
-Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior (3)
-Pervasive Developmental Disorders (4)
-Mental Retardation
-Learning Disorders (2)
-Other Childhood Disorders(4)
Name the 3 Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
-Conduct Disorder
-Oppositional Defiant Disorder
(more disruptive to parents and school than to child)
Name the 4 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
-Autistic Disorder
-Asperger's Disorder
-Rhett's Disorder
-Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
Name 3 learning disorders
-Reading Disorder
-Disorder of Written Expression
-Mathematics Disorder
Name 4 other Childhood Disorders
-Separation Anxiety
-Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)
Describe Conduct Disorder (CD)
-child dx.
-"juvenile deliquent" kids
deliberate and persistently cruel
ignore social rules/norms, lies, steals, firesetters
often become anti-social personality
Connection between CD and parenting
related to poor parenting skills
parental psychopathology
Age of onset for CD and prognosis?
-if sxs. present before age 10, named as childhood onset and prognosis is poorer
-if sxs. present after age 10 use adolescent dx. of oppositional defiant disorder
-sxs.must be present for 6 months.
Best treatment modality for CD?
multi-systemic treatment involving the child, family, and adjunct systems to the family most effective
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
-child defiant and negativistic, not as severe a dx. as CD.
-behavior isn't present in all settings
-behavior is often poor at home and around familiar people
-not usually involve legal system
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
-inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity or all
-fidgety, easilty distracted, impatient, excessive talking, shifting focus/activity from one area to another
-often mis-diagnosed as CD or ODD
ADD/ADHD attributes and prevalence
-3-7% of all school children meet criteria
-Boys are 2-9 times more likely to be dx. than girls
-poor peer relationships, academic under acheivement,
Depressed WISC scale scores
-processing speed in cancellation and coding
-Math subtest and working memory
Dx. criteria that must be met for ADD/ADHD dx.
-sxs. must be present in more than 1 setting
-some sign before age 7
-may outgrow hyperactivity
-up to 70% will have some sxs. across the lifespan
ADD/ADHD and medication
-some medications result in improvement
-stimulants and anti-depressants most common under age 12.
25% do not respond to meds
-stimulants mimic dopamine neurotransmitter
Impact of Ritalin on ADD/ADHD
-decreases motor activity
-decreases impulsivity
-increases attention span/concentration
-increases standardized test scores
-low dose would have a similar effect on anyone
Ritalin side effects
-decrease appetite
Brain anatomy and ADD/ADHD
-less blood flow to pre-frontal cortex may result in disorder
-glucose metabolism may impact disorder
-caudate nucleus smaller
Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD):
General information
-qualitative developmental abnormalties: abnormal in every stage of development
-quantitative abnormalities: person's behavior is normal for an earlier stage of development (MR)
Most common PDD
characteristics of autism
-lasts across the lifespan
-unresponsive to people
-must be present before age 3
-75% cases also MR
-speech/communication is impaired & bizarre
-some do not speak
-tend to reverse pronouns
-restricted repetoire of activities
-intense inanimate object attachment
-some head bang
research related to autism
-considered a spectrum disorder (ASD) that includes Asperger's and PDD
-4-5 x m ore likely in boys
-have not id'd a common genetic link
-genetic factors: an increased concordance rate with monozygotic twins
neurological markers for autism
-enlarged ventricles
-underdeveloped cerebellum
-EEG abnormalities
-elevated seratonin levels
postive prognosis indicators
-presence of language skills & overall IQ
-early dx. and intervention = later positive effects
Asperger's syndrome
-milder form of autism
-have more social interaction, but poor social skills
-doesn't include significantly delayed speech
-ext 1 out of 1000 babies have Aspergers
more rare PDD
-Rett's Disorder
-Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Rett's Disorder
-period of normal development
-onset of head growth deceleration
-poor walking gait
-onset in 1st/2nd year, but before 4 yrs.
only reported in girls
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
-2 yrs of normal development
-regression of acquired skills in almost all domains
-loss of development in at least 2 of the following areas:
-expressive/receptive speec
-social skills/adaptive behavior
-bowel/bladder control
-play/motor skills
-dx. prior to 10 yrs. old
-very rare
-most common in males
Mental Retardation (MR)
-2 SD below the mean
-deficiencies in adaptive behavior
-people with IQ between 71 and 75 dx based on level of adaptive functioning
Best assessment for MR
-Vineland Adpative test
-assessing by questioning the caretaker and taking to the child
Mild Mental Retardation
-IQ range: 50-70
-2 SD below the mean
-85% if MR population
-noticed later
Moderate Mental Retardation
-IQ range: 35-49
-3 SD below the mean
-10% of MR population
Severe Mental Retardation
-IQ range: 20-34
-4 SD below the mean
-3-4% if MR population
-recognized early, ex. Down's Syndrome
Profound Mental Retardation
-IQ range: 19 & below
-5 SD below the mean
-1-2% if MR population
Learning Disorders
-skill must fall significantly below what might be expected as long as there is no medical explanation for the lack of skill
-discrepancy of more than 2 SD between acheivement and IQ.
-usually not present until start of school
-primarily in reading, writing, and arithmetic
-5% of public school kids have LD
-domain specific