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159 Cards in this Set

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Acute Coronary Sydrome?
Sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or myocardial infarction.
anemia?
reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells
aneurysm?
Ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris?
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
cardiac arrest?
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Cardiac Tamponade?
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta?
congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart disease?
heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure?
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the issues and organs
coronary occlusion?
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis (can lead to a heart attack)
Deep vein thrombosis?
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremeties
dysrythemia?
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
embolus?
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.
fibrillation?
rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contraction of the atria or ventricles
hemochromatosis?
an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue. can cause diabetes, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis
hemophilia?
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor
hemorrhiod?
varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
Hodgkin disease?
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
Hypertensive heart disease?
Disorder of the heart brought about by presistent high blood pressure
intermittent claudication?
pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking.
Leukemia?
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells
Mitral vavle stenosis?
a narrowing of the mitral vavle from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
mycardial infarction?
death of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called a heart attack)
Peripheral arterial disease?
disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain, that affects blood circulation, such as athersclerosis and Raynaud disease.
rheumatic fever?
an inflammatory disease, usually occuring in children and often after an upper respiratory tract infection.
rheumatic heart disease?
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever.
sickle cell anemia?
a hereditary chronic hemolytic disease characterized by crescent-or sickle-shaped red blood cells
Varicose Veins? (Varicoisities)
distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
aneurysmectomy?
surgical excision of an aneurysm
bone marrow transplant?
infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a doner with matching cells and tissues to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
cardiac pacemaker?
batter-powered or nuclear-powered aparatus implanted under the skin to regulate the heart rate
coronary artery bypass graft?
surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
coronary stent?
a supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery. Used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
defibrillation?
application of an electric shick to myocardium throught the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythem.
embolectomy?
excision of an embolus or clot
femoropopliteal bypass?
surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
Hemorrhiodectomy?
excision of hemorrhoids, the varicosed veins in the rectal region
implantable cardiac defibrillator?
device implanted in the body that continously monitors the heart ryhthem.
Intracoronary thrombolytic therapy?
an injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots to coronary vessels
Laser anioplasty?
the use of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation to open blocked arteries, especailly in lower extremeties
Mitral Commissurotomy?
surgical procedure to repair a stenosed mitral valve by breaking apart the leaves of the valve
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty?
procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. (also called balloon angioplasty)
Digital subtraction angiography?
a process of digital x-ray imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or remvoes structures not being studied
Dopplar Ultrasound?
a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels. Used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
Exercise stress test?
a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill.
single-photon emission computed tomography?
a nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles. It is used to damage to cardiac tissue
thallium test
a nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery.
Transesophageal echocardiogram?
an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
cardiac catheterization?
an examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. Used to evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease.
impedence pleythsmography
measures venous flow of the extremeties with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance in the vein. Used to detect deep vein thrombosis
sphygomomanometer?
device used for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope?
an instrument used to hear sounds produced by the heart, lungs, and bowels
coagulation time?
blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
complete blood count?
basic blood screening that includes tests on hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell morphology, leukocyte count, and white blood cell differential
hemoglobin?
blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components in red blood cells
Prothrombin time?
blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking coumadin and oral anticoagulation medication.
Bone marrow biopsy?
needle puncture to remove bone marrow for study, usualyy from the sternum or ilium. used to diagnose leukemia and anemia
auscultation?
Hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
Blood pressure?
pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation?
emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage
diastole?
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventrilces relax between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)
extracorporeal?
occuring outside the body. during open heart surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when the blood is diverted outside the body to a heart lung machine
Heart Murmur?
a short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
hypertension?
blood pressure that is below normal
hypotension?
blood pressure that is below normal
lumen?
space within a tubular part or organ, such as the soace within a blood vessel
occlude?
to close tightly, to block
percussion?
tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath
systole?
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventrilces contact (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)
vasoconstrictor?
agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
vasodilator?
agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels
Venipuncture?
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
anticoagulant?
agent that slows the clotting process
dyscrasia?
abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
hemorrhage?
rapid flow of blood
plasma?
liquid portion of the blood in which elements or cells are suspended and that contains some of the clotting factors
serum?
liquid portion of the blood without the clotting factors
adhesion?
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are seperated.
cirrhosis?
chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of cells, most commonly caused by alcoholism
crohn disease?
chronic inflammation usually affecting the ileum, although it can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract.
duodenal ulcer?
ulcer in the duodenum
gastric ulcer?
ulcer in the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease?
the abnormal backward flow of gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, gradually breaking down the mucous barrier of the esophagus
ileus?
obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
irritable bowel syndrome?
periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and or constipation, usually associated with abdominal pain
obesity?
excess of body fat
peptic ulcer?
another name for gastric or duodenal ulcer
polyp?
tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane. common sites are on nose, throat, and intestines
ulcerative colitis?
imflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers. The main symptom is diarrhea
volvulus
twisting or kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction
abdominoperineal resection?
removal of the colon and rectum through both abdominal and perineal approaches. the patient will have a colostomy
anastomosis?
surgical connection between two normally distinct structures
vagotomy?
cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and thus reduce the occurance of ulcers.
Barium enema?
series of x-ray images taken of the large intestine after a barium enema has been administered.
upper gastrointestinal series?
series of x-ray images taken of the stomach and duodenum after braium enema has been swallowed.
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaatography?
radiographic examination of the bile and pancreatic ducts with contrast medium, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy
endoscopic ultrasound?
a procedure using an endoscopic fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall. used to detect tumors and cystic growths and for staging of malignant tumors.
helicobacter pylori anitbodies test?
a blood test to determine the presence of bacteria
fecal occult blood test?
a test to detect occult blood in feces. it is used to screen for colon cancer
ascites?
abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
diarrhea?
frequent discharge of liquid stool
dysentery?
disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain
feces?
waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum
gastic lavage?
washing out of the stomach
gavage?
process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
hematemesis?
vomiting of blood
melena?
black, tarry stool that contains digested blood. usually result of bleeding in the upper GI
nausea?
urge to vomit
Peristalsis?
involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
reflux?
abdormal backward flow in the esophageal reflux, the stomach contents flow into the esophagus
vomit?
matter expelled from the stomach through the mouth
astigmatism?
defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye
cataract?
clouding of the lens of the eye
chalazion?
reflection of an oil gland of the eyelid
detached retina?
seperation of the retina from the choroid in back of the eye
emmetropia?
normal refractive condition of the eye
glaucoma?
eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abdormal increase of intraocular pressure. If not treated it will lead to blindness
hperopia?
farsightedness
Macular degeneration?
a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina resulting in loss of central vision
myopia?
nearsightedness
nyctalopia?
poor vision at night or in faint light
nystagmus?
involuntary jerking movements of the eyes
presbyopia?
impaired vision as a result of aging
pterygium?
thin tissue growing into the cornea from the conjuctiva, usually caused from sun exposure.
retinitis pigmentosa?
hereditary, prgressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
strabismus?
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
sty?
infection of an oil gland of the eyelid
enucleation?
surgical removal of the eyeball
LASIK?
a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.
phacoemuisification?
method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
PRK?
a procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which the Excimer laser is used to reshape the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea
Retinal photocoagulation?
a procedure to repair tears in the retina by use of an intense, precisley focused light beam, which causes coagulation of the tissue protein
scleral buckling?
a procedure to repair a detached retina.
Trabeculectomy?
surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure (used to treat glaucoma)
Vitrectomy?
surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor
miotic?
agent that constricts the pupil
mydriatic?
agent that dilates the pupil
oculus dexter?
medical term for the right eye
oculus sinister?
medical term for left eye
oculus uterque?
medical term for each eye
optician?
a specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses (cant prescribe lenses)
optometrist?
a health professional who prescribes corrective lenses and or eye exercises
visual acuity?
sharpness of vision for either distance or nearness
Acoustic Neuroma?
Benign tumor within the auditory canal growing from the acoustic nerve. May cause hearing loss.
ceruminoma?
tumor of the gland that secretes earwax
Meniere Disease?
Chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by dizziness and ringing in the ear and hearing loss
Otitis externa?
inflammation of the outer ear
Otitis media?
inflammation of the middle ear
Presbycusis?
Hearing impairment in old age
tinnitus?
ringing of the ears
Vertigo?
a sense that either one's own body or the environment is revolving
Miotic?
agent that constricts the pupil
Mydratic?
agent that dilates the pupil
Oculus dexter?
Medical term for right eye
Oculus sinister?
Medical term for left eye
Oculus uterque?
Medical term for each eye
Optician?
a specialist who fills presciptions for lenses (Cannot prescribe lenses
Optometrist?
A health professional who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises
Visual acuity?
sharpness of vision for either distance or nearness.