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59 Cards in this Set

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How are woodpeckers protected?
By state and federal law
How have woodpeckers been persecuted in the past?
Talismans; sport; food
Who used Woodpeckers as Talismans?
The native americans
Why are woodpeckers sometimes illegally hunted for sport?
They are fairly large and fly slowly
What do red-headed woodpeckers taste like?
Audobon said they "smelled strongly of ants and other insects, making them scarcely edible"
In the 1840's how many red-headed woodpeckers were shot off one cherry tree in one day?
>100
In 1897 how many red-headed woodpeckers were shot off one utility pole in one day?
19
What is one "private property fear" of landowners about woodpeckers?
Red Cockaded Woodpeckers protection may limit timber harvest. "Red-headed" woodpeckers are often shot by mistake.
What is the most important technique for woodpecker habitat management?
Proper snag management
What is a snag?
A standing dead or dying tree
How many species of birds use cavities (either as primary or secondary users)
>85
For decades into the 1970's what was snag management?
Removing snags from national forests and private land holdings
Timber sale contracts often required for a number of ___________ to be cut, and the contractor was given purchaser credit to do so.
Snags
Why were snags removed prior to 1970? (3)
1) They were thought to be dangerous to workers/recreationists
2) Any standing wood was said to be "wasted"
3) They were thought to be "lightning rods" in fire protection plans
Why did attitudes towards snags change in the 1970's?
Research provided insight into their ecological importance.
Why are woodpecker numbers declining?
Habitat loss (loss of snags) due to the cutting of old growth forests
What is proper snag management? (4)
1) Do not remove naturally created snags
2) Minimize safety/sanitation cuts
3) Protect snags from prescribed fire
4) Create snags using various techniques
How do you protect snags from prescribed fire?
"Ring" bases of snags by removing fuel from around the base immediately prior to burns
How do you create snags with prescibed fire?
Burn in mixed pine-hardwood forests because of the susceptibility of hardwoods to fire.
Fire in some old growth forests can create snags as well
What are two ways to create snags with herbicides? (2)
1) Broadcast
2) Injectable
How does short rotation pine management for pulp production effect woodpecker management? (2)
1) The stands are too dense
2) The trees are not large enough for nesting, roosting, and foraging.
What DBH is best for saw timber and Woodpecker management?
12-24 DBH
How is Saw timber management best for woodpeckers? (2)
1) Stands are more open due to thinning, burning, and herbiciding.
2) Larger/older trees provide nesting, Roosting, foraging substrates.
Why are hardwood trees important to woodpeckers?
Many woodpeckers nest or forage in harwoods
What are some characteristics of trees that are good for woodpeckers?
1) Diverse
2) Older (10" DBH and above)
What is the best way to provide quality hardwoods for woodpeckers? (2)
1. Maintaining riparian/streamside management zones of hardwood species.
2. Maintaining mixed pine-hardwood sites, or pure harwood sites on upland areas.
Where do woodpeckers live?
The Americas, Africa, Eurasia, and southern Asia
Where are woodpeckers missing from?
Major Islands far from continents
Where are the greatest numbers of woodpeckers found?
The Neotropics
Where are the neotropics?
Lowland middle America, West Indies, South America
Where do woodpecker originally seem to have originated from?
The neotropics
What and when did woodpeckers seem to arise from?
Proto-barbet stock during the Tertiary Era.
What ORDER do woodpeckers belong to?
Piciformes
What are woodpeckers highly adapted to?
woodboring/gleaning/tree climbing
What type of feet do woodpeckers have?
Zygodactylous
Which toe is missing in 3-toed woodpeckers?
The first toe
How are woodpeckers able to climb trees?
They have a unique arrangement of thigh muscles
How are woodpecker bill specialized
They grow continuously
Cryptically collored and sexes are alike, tail feathers are round and soft
Wrynecks
Bills are short, curved and pointed
Tongue is pointed, smooth w/o barbs
Wrynecks
Where do wrynecks live?
Asia/Africa
Passerine like locomotion and perching, yet with zygodactyly
Secondary Cavity Nesters
Nostrils Partially Covered by feathers
Wrynecks
Where do Piculets live?
South America
Gender differences on plummage and crown
Tails are pointed but not used as a prop
Piculets
Tongue is long and covered in bristles. Habits are woodpecker-like
Zygodactylous
Piculets
Primary Cavity Users
Drum to communicate
South America
Nostrils are covered by feathers
Piculets
Often sexually dichromatic
Tail feathers are still and used as a prop
True Woodpeckers
The bill is strait with a chisel-like tip
Tongue is long with a barbed tip
True Woodpeckers
Woodpecker flight/climbing behaviors
Zygodactylous
Excavates their own cavities
Nostrils covered with feathers
"Drumming" is conspicuous
True Woodpeckers
19th century term for poor, southern whites
Peckerwood
Use a wide variety of foraging methods including mast storage, frugivory, flycatching, and gleaning.
Rarely drill for subsurface insects in wood
Many species exhibit cooperative breeding or other complex social behaviors
Melanerpine woodpeckers
Foraging strategy typically sapsucking, but will take insects attracted to sap as well; also will glean insects from the bark
Sphyrapicine Woodpeckers
Black and white, brown and white, with the male often having a red or yellow "cockade"
Picoides
Found primarily in North America
Some species are three-toed
Bills are strait and chisel-shaped
Picoides
All species feed mainly on insects gleaned or dug from beneath the bark of trees
Some recent research indicates that this large group may eventually be separated into 3 distinct genera
Picoides woodpeckers
Which woodpecker genus can be divided into two groups?
Colaptes
Which subgroups can the genus Colaptes be divided into?(2)
1) Subgenus Colaptes
2) Subgenus Chrysoptilus
Subgenus of Colates that are more slender and ground dwilling species with usually one-colored topes of the heads. They eat ants and occur all over the America's except in polar regions
Colaptes Colaptes
The forest flickers that are a more arboreal species. Almost all of them have a red nape and a differently colored crown. They are found in South America and are primarily tree gleaners.
Colaptes Chrysoptilus