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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charlott Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper" 1899
a woman is driven mad by a cycle of depriving her of work - in response to the common ideal that women are prone to hysteria - and doctors treatment of women as patients
Edward Clark, "Sex in Education; Or, A Fair Chance for Girls" 1873
- a women's reproductive system needed so much energy to function and if women were spending to much time thinking and being educated they would not develop and be able to have children; this was written in response to the first women's colleges being founded - reprsented public opinion of women
formation of co-ed medical schools
- occured in the 1970s; ie. University of Michigan in Ann Arbhor; and John Hopkin's university
Shulamith Firestone, "The Dialectic of Sex" 1970
- a call for testtube babies; presents the idea that you can't have a feminist revolution as long as women are having children biologically
Our Bodies, Our Selves - The Boston Women's Health Initiative
, to be a women is to celebrate female sexuality, and to celebrate the role of females and reproduction; the emphasis is on knowledge, having the proper information – giving women options; a different way of looking at the female body; yet it is also a political text, in the women’s health movement
NIH - Nurse's Health Study (1976)
a study to see what happened to women when they went of the pill for a long time; to do this they recruited nurses, and sent them questioners – a long-term study; soon started to grow in what they were testing
1. study ended 25 years later – and resulted in a published book; which tells the genetic factors to having certain diseases, environmental choices which contributed to this disease, and has an interview with specialists – all the doctors said the same thing = secrets of health!
John Stuart Mill, On the Subjection of Women, 1870
“Though women do not complain of the power of husbands, each complains of her own husband, or of the husbands of her friends. It is the same in all other cases of servitude; at least in the commencement of the emancipatory movement. The serfs did not a first complain of the power of the lords, but only of their tyranny.”
what is marriage?
? Marriage is a religious, legal, socially sanctioned bond by a man and woman who join together
Pat Mainardi, “The Politics of Housework
1.She pulls out of the work force after her children are born – transforms a communal marriage into one biased strongly on gender roles –
2.speaks of the division of labour in the home
3.she felt she was imprisoned; not satisfying work
Jesse Bernard, the future of marriage;
In every marriage there are two marriages: his and hers; marriage had benefits to men – they enjoy better health, less psychological distress; most of widowed men / women remarry; widowers show more than expected psychological distress; men who are married earn more than those that are single; marriage is a cost to women – face more health hazards, report more dissatisfaction, more likely to initiate divorce proceedings; married women earn less than unmarried women
compulsory heterosexuality
- coined by Adrienne Rich
Mary O’Brien, Politics of Reproduction (1981)
in which she argues that the control of female reproduction is so central, that it is the root cause of patriarchy- if men don’t control a woman’s reproduction and sexuality, they would not know who their children were, and the order of patrilineal inheritance, would not be insured;
William Actin, a major 19th century British gynecologist
“a woman is a uterus with a person built around it”; “women are persons built around uteruses and have no sexual desire, luckily for themselves”
Simon de Beauvoir, the Second Sex
In her novel, she starts with biology, and makes the point that reproduction is the central, identifying feature of womanhood
- Her personal solution is not satisfactory for most women; she decided that she would never have a child, in order to be considered an intellectual equal of man
1965, it is legalized in this country
idea of 2 types of orgasms: clitoral (inferior) and vaginal (mature)
Albert Kinsey, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948); Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
-concluded that there was a vast world of sexual experience in opposition to published thoughts and ideals
-His books sold over .25 million books – it exploded the ‘veil of silence’ existing over sexuality; and freed those who felt they were weird, and unusual, and who had felt ashamed about their sexuality
William Masters and Virginia Johnson, Human Sexual Response (1966)
– scientific medical response to Freud; observed many people in the act of sex, and they concluded that all female orgasms were clitoral, that vaginal orgasms were a myth;
-That women were multi-orgasmic in a short period of time
-This publishing coincided to the explosion of divorce rates in America
Anne Koedt, The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm, 1973
– article is a radical feminist reaction to Frued’s work/beliefs of the vaginal orgasm
-Women now have strong sexual drives and experiences; led to the birth of sexual liberation and liberalism
Anselma Dell’Olio, The Sexual Revolution Wasn’t Our War, Ms. 1970 –
-this sexual revolution limited women of only one thing: their ability to say no, as the behaviors of men failed/ have not changed; free sex for women can’t occur until both gender’s consciousness is transformed
Red-baiting (1950s)
-arose when political attacks came against both communists and red-sympathizers, there was a conservative reaction against radical political sympathizers – directed against, labor unions, progressive feminist, civil rights workers, …led to a period of relative political repression – people could be fired if they failed to take a loyalty oath – attack then extended to homosexuals
Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline D. Davis, Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community (1993)
-lesbian bar culture, in the 1950’s in Buffalo; describes a butch-fem culture
Dear Sisters, “The woman identified woman”
-Major argument: these radical feminists are arguing that: [a controversial statement within all of the feminist movement] If marriage is a patriarchical institution, what is the meaning of lesbianism?
 Lesbianism is related to patriarchy as it is a reaction against patriarchy, a way of revolting against patriarchy
Martha Shelley, “Notes of a Radical Lesbian” (1969) published in Robin Morgan, Sisterhood is Powerful (1970)
this was the first mass produced anthology from the radical women’s movement
-lesbianism is one read to freedom – freedom
The feminist movement and the women’s movement became connected esp. 1970s
Ie : women’s bookstore, coffeehouses, theaters, -- many of these were founded by lesbian women; they created the infrastructure of these women-supported institutions --- this is another way the lesbian community added energy to the practice of feminism
Martha Shelly
o “I have met many, many feminist who were not lesbians – but I have never met a lesbian who was not a feminist.”
Adrienne Rich, "Compulsory Heterosexuality & Lesbian Existence," Signs, vol. 5, no. 1 (Summer 1980)
 that we, as women, are not free to choose our sexuality; this pushes heterosexual women to think about their choice – which was her purpose; to turn from questioning why someone is gay to why someone is heterosexual
object-relations theory; Nancy Chodorow
-Object relations theory is an offshoot of psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes interpersonal relations, primarily in the family and especially between mother and child. "Object" actually means person (Martin Buber, where are you now that we need you?), and especially the significant person that is the object or target of another's feelings or intentions. "Relations" refers to interpersonal relatios and suggests the residues of past relationships that affect a person in the present. Object relations theorists are interest in inner images of the self and other and how they manifest themselves in interpersonal situations.Kohut's "self psychology" is an offshoot of object relations.
Jill Johnsten (1973), Lesbian Natino: the Feminist Solution;
-Argues for a separatism which was necessary to achieve feminism; this idea is parallel to the ideas of the black panthers that encouraged separatism to gain equality
Women of La Raza Unite!
- El Raza : first national convention took place in 1970; it defied sterotypes about chicanos;
- seek a community for women
- speak on issues of:
1. jobs
2. prostitution
3. abortions
4. community-controlled clinics
5. child-care centers
6. drugs
7. education
8. research...
Manifesto - Redsockings
- redstockings: a nyc group that was influential in the development of radical feminist theory; influenced by marxist tradition
- this paper marks women as oppressed by men; buiding a movment baised on the personal; trying to idnetity with women and calling for all women to unite togheter for these ends
Radical Feminism and Love - by Ti-Grace Atkinson
- the Feminists: a influential group that wrote in militant style; empahised the institions of marriage, lvoe and sex as oppressive to women; they empahisze class inequalities and were committed to egalitarinism
-questions what is love?
A Historical and Critical Essay for Black Women
- Patricia Haden, Donna Middleton and Patricia Robinson ; 1969-70
Angela Davis
1. author of "racism, birht control and Reproductive Rights", 1983; which is a piece which calls attention to the racist and class differentiations within birth control; she critizes the feminist movmeent for failing to see these distinctions;
margaret sanger
- life long crucade for birth control;
- later in life becomes associated with the eugencis movemnet
Hitting Home1979)
by : Cara Feinberg; April 8, 2002;
- domestive violence;
Dianne Herman, The Rape Culture (1979)
- suggests that American culture is a rape culture; one in which rape is both tolerated and expeccted and will stay that way until attudes towards male dominance; violent sexuality; and the upkeep of patricarichal instituations stops.
Janet C. Gornick - Reconcilable Differences; April 8, 2002
- speaks of egilatarian marriage as a feminist agenda
- the way gender roles tie into domestic roles
- Comprehensive Health Man Power Act
o Who:
o What: this legislation provides the stipulation that any medical school had to admit women in order to receive federal funding
o When: 1971, under Nixon
o Significance: increased the numbers of women in the medical field which traditionally held a man’s monolopy
- Sherry Ortner
o Who:
o What: authored, Ís female to male as nature is to culture?”
o When: 1974
o Why: she suggests that since women are traditionally related to nature and men are related to civilization; women are therefore inferior to men who are the creators of culture; women as related to nature is due to their relation to reproduction
o Significance/ Related to: the creation and maintance of patrilineal societies; gendered divisions, divisions in the labour force; traditional types of family structures
- Nursh’s health study (founded by NIH)
o Who: the subjects of this study were nurses – who were very diligent about taking accurate notes, and detailing their symptoms
o What: this was a study conducted to see what happen to women when they went off the pill for a long time;
o When: 1976
o Why: this study grew into a published book it published the longterm effects of the pill; a result of the wome’sn ehalth movment (1970s – present)
o Significance/ tie in’s: has grown in several new studys conducted using nurses – shows the incorporation of women in medicine and as subjects of medicinal study – usually only experimented on men; this study is about learning about birth control methods which is a way for women to control their own reproductive rights
- Roe vs. wade
o Who:
o What: this legislation provided women with the ability to control their reproduction through legalizing abortions; this law concludes that the fetus dosnt’ have civil rights – which has become very controversial idea; this law upheld women’s rights to privacy
o When: 1973
o Why: they was a very controversial court decision that was passed with a vote of 7 to 2;
o Significance / related to: since the passage of this act; the number of mothers that have died due to self-abortions or illegal abortions has reduced drastically – therefore, medically legalization has been a good thing; today: this is prob at the center of the number one issue in America: abortion—at the heart of contemporary feminism; the feminist stance towards abortions is for no restrictions; the roe vs. wade decision will be debated once again in the very near future; and women’s ability to control their reproductive choices and bodies will again be under debate
- Nancy Chodorow
o Who: a sociologist
o What: author of “The Reproduction of Mothering”; in which she spoke of full-time mothering as one of the foundations of a patriarchic society; where mothers form the primary functions of raising children and how this affects their sons and daughters; whereby little girls grow up identifying as mothers
o When: 1978
o Why: it is a critique of motherhood as an institution and of how it effects women politically, socially, and economically
o Significance / tie ins: object relations theory – this theory emphasizes the relationships within the family structure, especially that between mother and child; and how these relationships manifest in outside situations
- Rape culture
o Who: authored by Dianne Herman
o What: this was an article which suggests that in our culture rape is accepted as the norm due to attitudes towards men as sexual creatures,
o When: 1979
o Why: women as prisoners bc they have to avoid things to avoid rape
o Significance: related to violence against women; traditional sterotypes towards men and women; the creation of gender roles among these groups; act of power and dominance – related to the upkeep of patriarchy
- Sterilization
o When: 1920-1960s
o Why: forms of population controls
o Who: this was a major movement in the USA and in other nations such as Nazi Germany; in the usa – it was commonly followed by white men who were concerned with ideas such as race sucicide
o significance: show how the controlling of reproductive function is crucial to the creation and perpetuation of patriarchal societies
o other / tie in: Mary O’Brien’s, Politics of Reproduction (1981) – in which she argues that the control of reproduction is central and at the heart of patriarchy; evolutionarily, if men didn’t control women’s reproduction and sexuality how would they know who their kids were? And patrilineal inheritance would not be insured
- eugenics
o What: the science that deals with the improvement of the races through the control of heredity factors; racist as some people are choosing who should be allowed to propogate and who shouldn’t ; ie. Poor people should practice contraception
- Margaret sanger
o Who: she was a leading figure in the birth control movment
o What: her efforts made contraception freely available; later she became connected to the eugenics movment which was strongly racist; she was involved in research for the birth control pill – which came widely available in the 1960s
o When: the 20th century; 1916 – opens the first birth control center in the USA
o Why:she believes that women should control contraception themselves, without the input of men; this reinforces the belief that women should be free to make their own reproductive choices; she built the movement after many poor women were dying after too many babies
o Significance / related to: eugenics, birth control, racism; Margaret Sanger is related to the important feminist topic of how the controlling of reproduction is crucial to patriarchal societies ; it allows women to control when to have babies; crucial for women to control their bodies
- compulsory heterosexuality
o who: authored by Adrienne Rich
o What: this article advocated new ways of thinking about lesbianism and sexuality outside the box; by the term compulsory heterosexuality she is suggesting that society is forcing heterosexuality- with evidence in media, religion, and homophobia; her goal is for heterosexual women to think about their choice and the factors determining this choice; people are socialized by society to act in certain ways
o When: summer 1980
o Why: This piece is important to women’s studies and the feminist movement because it shows an alternate to the dominant pattern of heterosexuality; lesbian as feared because it goes against the status quo; why it is important for the feminist movement to defend the rights of lesbians in order to create a movement that is coheisive and sensitive to the needs of all women
o Related to : lesbianism, lavender menance, lesbian continunum; the role of lesbians within the movement (ie. Strong advocates for women’s rights), political lesbiansn – women using this as a statement that they were not dependent on men; gender as socially constructed
- jane
o who: an underground feminist abortion service; the group operated out of Chicago and was officially known as The Abortion Counseling Service of Women’s Liberation; they grew from an abortion referral service to performing the abortions themselves
o What: they provided their services for women of all ages, backgrounds, races..; they were very successful (performing nearly 11,000 abortions with only 2 deaths) – evidence for allowing women to control their own reproductive choices as compared to illegal abortions where death was high
o When: it was organized in 1969; before the passage of roe vs. wade making abortions legal
o Why: they viewed reproductive control as fundamental to women’s health; a major breakthrough for women acting in a position of providing healthcare; fostered women’s health and knowledge of their own bodies; in this right they are similar to Our Bodies, Our Selves; the self-help book which grew out of the Boston Health Movement ; women taking control of their lives and their freedom of choice; feminist believe that until they can control their bodies they can’t be free from dependence on men nor reach true equality
- Angela Davis
o Who: an activist; a member of the black panthers party who sought abolition and civil rights for minorities; worked for racial and gender equality
o What: author of “Racism, Birth Control and Reproductive Rights”; this is a paper that explores the effects of racism within birth control and reproduction; she sites the
o When: 1983
o Why: Raises consciousness about racial inequalities; and speaks of eugenics, forced sterilizations, birth control,
o Significance: Her work served as a form of consciousness raising within the feminist movement; advocating equality for all women; This piece has been related to women’s rights to reproductive freedoms; some versions of reproductive controlling and how these features create and perpetuate patriarchical societies
o Can also bring in: aboritions, how the tone of this paper differed from that of the nazi germany eugenics piece;
o how was its opinionated, strong, tone added to its argument, easier for the reader to align themselves with, yet can also be alienating; how the forced sterilizations are important in contemporary society as they hit home – ie. NC
o how some movements don’t include the interests of all women; similar to NOW and the lavender menance
- Violence against women act (VAWA)
i. Who: this was a piece of legislation advocated by other feminist and congressessmen – one of the few issues; why did they both agree: it involves women all across the spectrum; women as a major voting section; it is easier to vote for it than against it
ii. What: this act provided funding for women’s shelters, created a national domestic abuse hotline, funding for training and for programs, provided criminal enformcement for interstate orders of protection
iii. When: renewed in 2005; first passed in 1994
iv. Where:
v. Why: Yet, this issues falls into conservative views of politics and society as it tries to preserve the idea of family values for the social good;
thyroid gland
- ant to larnyx; 2 lateral lobes; highly vascular;
connects the lateral lobes of the thyorid; c6 level
thyroid hormones
1) T3
2) T4
- involved in metabolic rates, growth, oxygen
parafollicular cells
located in thyroid; aligned with calictonin hormone
calcitonin hormone
inc in ca = inc in calicotonin
dec in ca = dec caliciton secretion
calorigentic effect
a mechanism that produces heat as a means of controlling body temperature; controll of calcitonin
bone destroying cells
bone forming cells
parathyorid glands (4)
- attached to the lateral lobes on teh post thyroid gland; 2 per lobe = super and inferior
- principle cells
- oxyphill cells
principle cells
- part of parathyroid glands; and antigonist to the thyroid gland functions
- parathyroid hormone (PTH)
- inc CA and Mg
parathyroid horomone (pth)
- type of principle cells; inc the number and acitivyt of osteoclasts
oxyphil cells
part of parathyroid gland; funciton unknown
adrenal glands / suprarenals
- located superior to each kidney; pyramidial
- adrenal cortex
- adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
- takes up 80% of space of adrenal gland; outer
- divided into:
--> outer : mineral funcitons [ zona glomerulosa]
--> middle : insulin functions
[zona fasciculata]
--> inner: masculinizing effects
[ zona reticularis]
zona glomerulosa
outer part of adrenal cortex of adrenal glands
zona fasiculata
middle portion of adrenal cortex of adrenal glands
zona reticularis
inner portion of adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland
adrogentic agents
- andros
- ture adnrogenic activity
- anabolic activity
true androgenic activity
- relates to the sex characteristics of the human body (growth, male sex drive, vocal cord enlargment, spermatogensis)
- type of androgenic activity
anaboic activity
- building up of skeletal muscle mass
- type of androgenic agent
adrenal medulla / supraarenals
superior portion
- directly innervated by ANS; and the sympatatic division: and is important in flight or fight responses
- chromaffin cells (secrete epinephrine, and norephinephrine)
chromaffin cells
found in teh adrenal medulla
- secrete epineprhine (80%) and nonepineprhine
adreniline; secreted by the chromaffin cells of hte adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland
- 80%
nonadreniline; secreted by the chromaffin cells of hte adrenal medulla, which is part of the adrenal gland
- both an exocrine and endocrine gland
- post /inf to stomach
- head, body, tail divisions
acini cells
- type of exocrine cell in the pancreas;
- 99%
- digestive functions
islets of langerhans
- hormone secreteing cells
-type of endrocrine cells of hte pancreas
- alpha cells (glucagon)
- beta cells (insuline)
alpha cells
- type of islet of langerhans cells of the pancreas
- 17%
- secrets glucagon, which inc blood sugar
beta cells
- type of endocrine cell of hte pancreas
- 70%
- secretes insulin, thus dec glucose levels
pineal gland
attached to the roof of brain
- surrounded by pia matter
- secretes melatonin
- type of hormone secreted by the pineal gland
- promotes sleepiness, released int eh dark,
- associated with seasonal affected disorder
- thymus
- development of immune cells
- location: bt lungs, and behind sternum
- white blood cells or Tcells
- estrogen and progestrine production
- relaxin
estrogen / progesterine
- secreted by the ovaries
- involved in feminine characteristics, reproduce cycle regulation
- inc flexibility of public symphysis
- works on all joints of the body
- a type of hormone secreted by the ovaries
- involved in testerone production, regulates sperm production, and mas characteristics
gastrointestinal tract
- release of bile --> which is stimulated by food in the duodenum
- hormones: gastrin, secretin, CCk
- type of hormone secreted by the gastrointestinal tract
- causes the body to release gastric juices found in storage, involved in motility of system
- type of hormone secreted by the gastrointestinal tract
- tells pancrease to release soem gastric juices
- type of hormone secreted by teh gastrointestinal tract
- tells body that it is full
- erythropeitin (EPO) -- inc RBC volume in blood, which benefits areboic activities
- maintains fetal health, prepares mother for birth
disorders of pituitary gland
- dwarfism
- giantism
- acromegaly
- hyposecretion of hGh = premature closure of epiphyseal plates
- hypersecretation of hGH = abnormal bone length
- hypersecretion of hGh during adulthood = thickenign of bones; usually facial bones
disorders of the thyroid gland
- cretinism
- grave's disease
- hyposecretion of thyroid hormones during fetal life or infancty = skeleton and brain fails to grow
graves disease
hypersecretion of thyroid hormones = continual growth of thyroid gland; type of autoimmune disorder, in which the neg feedback mechanism is not working properly
- most common in females
- can result in a goiter or expothalmos (eye protrusion)
disorders of pancreas
diabetis mellitus
- 2 types:
1) type 1 = insuline dependent; found in children
2) type 2 = non-insuline dependent
- found in adults ; most ccommon; controlled via diet and exercise