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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organizations
Planned Parenthood Fed. of America- (1942)
a. (created when American Birth Control League and Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau merged)
b. ABCL and BCCRB = first reproductive rights organizations in the US

mtholyoke.edu
Organizations
National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League (NARAL)-
a.political group promoting pro-choice legislature
b. still exists today (see naral.org)

mtholyoke.edu
Reproduction Law
Comstock Laws (1873)-
-Banned the sale, purchase and distribution of "obscene material" (i.e. pornography and BIRTH CONTROL)
-motivated Margaret to begin her crusade for women's reproductive rights

mtholyoke.edu
Reproduction Act
Adolescent Family Life Act (aka the chastity law)- (1981)
a. established a national policy of teaching abstinence only in public school sex education
b. promoted "self-discipline and other prudent approaches"
c. challenged ACLU using the First Amendment and separation of church and state (teaching christian values in public schools)

mtholyoke.edu
Reproduction Law
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996)-
-law attempting decreeing that public schools may only teach abstinence in sex ed class
-abstinence justified with 8 principals including:
a. faithful, monogamous, MARRIED relationship is the "expected" (expected by whom? the self-righteous zealots?) standard for "human" (really, all humans? you expect this from all humans?) sexuality
b. abstinence is the only certain way to avoid pregnancy out of wedlock and STIs (very true. however, should probably strike the out of wedlock line)
c. sexual activity outside of marriage has harmful, "psychological and physical effects"
Reproduction Law/ Education Movement
PR and WOR Act continued--
a. teaches the children of unmarried parents that they have basically caused their parents "psychological and physical damage"
b. totally alienates and ignores homosexual children by referring to out of wedlock sexual activity as wrong when in most states they cannot marry
c. does not allow sex education programs funded by the federal government to EVEN MENTION birth control or other means to produce reconstruction unless HIGHLIGHTING THE NEGATIVE QUALITIES (i.e. forbids mention of fact that condoms reduce the possibility of AIDS)

(The Nation- gale group article)
Reproduction Quotes
(PR and WOR act)
Oklahoma Republican Congressional Rep on passing the PR and WOR act-
"Teenagers cannot understand mixed messages"
a. someone having such a low and inaccurate opinion of teenage intelligence should probably not make legislature concerning teens
b. maybe, if American teens are so dumb then you should, oh, I don't know, educate them! Giving teens all the information needed to make their own informed decision better prepares them to understand mixed messages and make better decision s in the future when voting and consuming etc. (which in turn benefits all of society)

(The Nation- Gale group article)
Education Movement
Sexuality Education
a. devised by Dr. Mary Calderone in 1964
b. aimed to teach a sexual education that encompassed the effects of sexual activity not only on reproduction, anatomy, and STI but also its social, cultural, psychological, and spiritual aspects
c. includes both abstinence and contraceptive methods
d. included teaching masturbation as a normal and universal practice (interesting, though pretty of odd)

(The Nation- Gale group article)
Education Movement
Retaliation of Sexuality Education:
Groups fighting back:
a. John Birch Society --> "smut", "destructive of religious beliefs", a "filthy communist plot"
b. Mothers Organized for Moral Stability (MOMS; wow! how clever!)
c. People Against Unconstitutional Sexual Education (PAUSE)
Judges generally ruled in favor of school board
California Court -- "Parents do not have a monopoly over the thoughts of their children or anyone else's"

(the Nation- Gale group article)
Reproduction Law
1970's and 80's -- fed.government starts funding and promoting family planning clinics and contraceptive information
-caused by the fact that at this time the United States had more 1,000,000 teen pregnancies annually (600,000 births)
-higher rate than any other industrial country
-15 times higher than the rate in Japan!
-government determined that it was because of huge difference in contraceptive information and availability

(the Nation- Gale group Article)
Violent and (ironic) Anti-Abortion Protest
Operation Rescue- Wichita, Kansas (1991)
Overview:
a. protestors joined hands (initially peacefully, to their credit), blockading the patients from entering the Women's Health Services Care Clinic
b. when first patient arrived protestors flooded into streets and threw themselves under the patient's car
c. police asked protestors to leave; they refused; police arrested one man; protestors began to take "baby-steps" away from the clinic, one person at a time
c. Operation Rescue order protestors to go limp if being arrested, needed to be carried away by cops

(McCuen- 122)
Violent and (ironic) Anti-Abortion Protest
Operation Rescue-
Overview continued:
a. in a previous meeting between Operation Rescue, city manager, and Mayor the city manager had forbid police from making lines on either side of clinic to stop protestors from coming and from making initial arrests (good call, protestors were initially peaceful, protected right to peaceful protest)
b. filed injunction in federal court and received temporary restraining order --> OR was ordered to ignore injunction and "use it as toilet paper"; leader called federal judge a Nazi and declared that he could go to hell
c. proceeded to distribute judge's office and home phone number and persuaded Bishop of Wichita to publicly rebuke him from his Catholic church/faith

(McCuen- 122)
Violent and (ironic) Anti-Abortion Protest
Operation Rescue- things get violent
a. protestor stalks Chief Judge Patrick Kelly and his wife home, Kelly has to fend him off while his wife runs inside to call police
b. Kelly begs city manager to authorize police protection of the clinic; refuses.
c. OR announces decision to cont. blockade through summer
d. Kelly begins getting death threats and was put under marshall protection

(McCuen- 123)
Violent and (ironic) Anti-Abortion Protest
Operation Rescue: the Constitution
A. Protestors
i. believed was constitutionally justified because trespassing was necessary to stop abortion (abortion is worse than criminal trespassing)
-->this defense is largely rejected in courts; however Wichita state judge accepted and acquitted the protestors
B. Pro-Life:
i. believe that women's choice is justified by 1st, 9th, and 14th Amendments and therefore it is the duty of the federal government to protect civil liberties from local political conflict
ii. 14th amendment written to "broadly cover anyone conspiring, "for the purpose of depriving, directly or indirectly (an individual of his or her civil rights)""
iii. written to protect against violence and harassment of the the Ku Klux Klan (similar to techniques of protestors)

(McCuen- 126)
Reproduction Law
Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE)
prohibits obstruction and hindrance of either reproductive health services or religious services

(McCuen- 119)
Anti-Abortion Prostest
Effects:
-because of anti-abortion terror campaigns the number of abortion doctors have decreased between 1982 and 1992
-Between North and South Dakota there is only ONE abortion provider
-protests also prevent women from health services provided by the clinics other than abortion (i.e. pap smears, family planning, pre-natal care, planning counseling, breast examination, contraception)

(McCuen- 159)
Reproductive Law
Title X (from the Public Service and Health Act)
-federal funding for project grants to public and private non-profit organization to provide family planning services
-priority of the money must be used for low income patients
-Of approximately five million women served in a title X clinic each year 8 of 10 are 150% below poverty level

(McCuen- 160)
Personal Stories
Nora Sayre (analyst and writer for the New York Times)- 1950's
-young college student beginning her career
-pregnant with much older man's baby (would have been expelled)
-mother was very sick, didn't want to trigger a break down
-found a doctor to perform illegal abortion (kept stressing that she must not mention it because she would be jailed; especially not to mention abortion in taxi cab--> drivers often blackmailed doctors)
-had to pretend she was drunk and apply blush to avoid anyone find out

(the Choices We Made)
Personal Stories
Whoppi Goldberg-
-went to Catholic school = no sex education
-got pregnant at age 14
-drank concoctions of liqour, bleach, and talc that were rumored to be an abortion method
-used a hanger and gave herself an abortion in a park (could not do it at home where anyone could would find out)

(The Choices We Made- 115-122)
Personal Stories
Judy Widdicombe (worked as a nurse in the 1960's)
-witnessed women (the majority of which were poor) come in nearly on their death beds with kidney and bladder problems and punctures, peritonitis (infection of abdomen) and septicemia (infection of blood stream

(The Choices We Made- 123-135)
Abortion Law
Roe v. Wade- the Decision:
-abortion during the first trimester is legal and protected by and from the state, greater regulation allowed in the second trimester; strong regulations allowed in the third trimester

(Discovering US History- gale group article)
Abortion Law
Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth (1976)-
Decision:
a. defined viability of fetus
b. required written consent of pregnant women before fetus is aborted
c. abortion clinics must keep detailed records
d. repealed Missouri law requiring husband's consent before woman could get an abortion or parent's consent in case of minors
e. repealed Missouri law prohibiting use of saline amniecentesis for abortion (most common and safe abortion method)

(Supreme Court Cases that Changed America- Gale group article)
Abortion Law
The Gag Rule (1987)
-prohibits Title X clinics from counseling about abortion even if specifically asked and not having information would jeopardize women's health
Abortion Law
Communications Decency Act (1996)
-BASICALLY THE REINCARNATION OF THE COMSTOCK LAWS
-was supposed to outlaw pornography but was written vaguely enough to be used to outlaw contraceptive material
-proves that same issues of Sanger's time are still current
Abortion Law
Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act (2004)
-bans abortion method which is considered safest for the mother and best at preserving woman's fertility
-is currently being appealed on grounds of unconstitutionality