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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
an ecosystem involves two processes that cannot be fully described at lower levels. what are these?
energy flow and chemical cycling
because energy cannot be recycled, an ecosystem must be powered by what?
a continuous influx of new energy from an external source (the sun)
----- flows through ecosystem while ----- cycles within them
energy...matter
energy enters most ecosystems in the form of what?
sunlight
sunlight is converted to chemical energy by what?
autotrophs
chemical energy by autotrophs are passed to ---- in the organic compounds of food
heterotrophs
photosynthetic organisms acquire what two elements in inorganic form from the air, soil, and water and assimilate them into organic molecules, some of which are consumed by animals?
carbon and nitrogen
metabolism of plants, animals, and other organisms, such as ----- and ----- break down organic wastes and dead organisms
bacteria and fungi
autotrophs are also known as what?
primary producers
which trophic level supports all others in an ecosystem?
autotrophs
primary producers use light energy to synthesize ----- and then use as fuel for ----
sugar, cellular respiration
primary consumers are also known as what?
herbivores
what determines the routes of energy flow and chemical cycling?
trophic structure
-----, such as humans, eat producers as well as consumers of different levels
omnivores
give an example of a consumer that feed at several different trophic levels
owl may eat mice but may also eat some invertebrates and snakes
all organisms are considered producers because...
their production supports that of all other organisms
all organisms are considered consumers because...
they metabolize organic compounds they make themselves from materials they assimilate from teh environment
all organisms perform some decomposition; in ----- they all break down organic material and release inorganic products such as carbon dioxide and ammonia
cellular metabolism
three categories of primary producers are...
plants, algae, and bacteria
what are the most important autotrophs in the limnetic zone of lakes and open ocean?
phytoplankton (algae and bacteria)
what are most important primary producers in the littoral areas of both freshwater and marine ecosystems?
multicellular algae and aquatic plants
what are main producers near hot water vents on the deep-sea floor?
chemoautotrophic bacteria
in aphotic zone, life depends on what?
energy and nutrients that rain down from above in the form of dead plankton and detritus
type of bacteria that derive energy from the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide
chemoautotrophic
many primary and higher-order consumers are ----- feeders, meaning that they supplement their main diet of autotrophs with some heterotrophic material when it becomes available
opportunistic
name some of the major primary consumers on land
insects, snails, plant parasites, grazing mammals, and some birds
chipmunks or squirrels eating mostly seeds and fruit but also eating bird eggs and nestlings occassionally is an example of...
opportunistic feeder
in aquatic ecosystems, phytoplankton are consumed mainly by what?
zooplankton
name some major zooplankton
heterotrophic protists, crustaceans, and some fish
name some of secondary consumers in terrestrial ecosystems
spiders, frogs, insect-eating birds, carnivorous mammals, and animal parasites
what are an ecosystem's main decomposers?
prokaryotes and fungi
----- interconnects all trophic levels
decomposition