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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Respiratory acidosis
excess CO2 increases H+ ion formation
voice box
Pulmonary surfactant
permits inflation of the alveoli
air sacs of the lungs
Respiratory alkalosis
less CO2 decreases H+ ion formation
Bronchial tree
the trachea & all of the bronchial tubes
disease in which alveoli lose their elasticity
Phrenic nerves
motor impulses from the medulla to the diaphragm travel along these to initiate inhalation
Pulmonary edema
accumulation of fliud in the alveoli
Tidal volume
mount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation
Intrapulmonic pressure
within the bronchial tree and the alveoli
opening between the vocal cords
prevents entry of food into the larynx
Vital capacity
sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, and expiratory reserve
Soft palate
prevents entry of food into the nasopharynx
bacterial infection of the lungs
Parietal pressure
value used to express the concentration of a gas in a particular site
Interpleural pressure
within the potential pleural space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura
Residual air
amount of air left in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation
the nose is the passageway for air into & out of the respiratory tract, hairs just inside the nostrils help block the entry of dust
Nasal septum
separater the two nasal cavities in the skull
Nasal mucosa
the nasal mucosa (lining) is made of:
Functions of the nasal mucosa
1. warms the air
2. moistens the air
3. cilia sweep mucus, dust, and pathogens to the pharynx
Receptors of the upper nasal cavities
in the upper nasal cavities are the receptors of the sense of SMELL
Paranasal sinuses
1. the paranasal sinuses are air cavities that open into the nasal cavities
2. to lighten skull
3. resonance for voice
carbon dioxide
chloride ions
hydrogen ions
bicarbonate ions
Bones of the paranasal sinuses
1. maxillae bones
2. frontal bones
3. sphenoid bones
4. ethmoid bones
**open into the nasal cavities**
movement of air to and from the alveoli
1. covered by the soft palate during swallowing
2. an air passage only
3. the adnoid is on the posterior wall
4. the eustachian tubes open into this part
5. the only part lined with ciliated epithelium
1. an air & food passage behind the mouth
2. the palatine tonsils are on the lateral walls
1. an air & food passage that opens into the larynx & esophagus
2. the swallowing reflex involves contration of the oropharynx and this part
Upper respiratory tract
from the pharynx, incoming air enters the larynx and then the trachea, both of which are part of the upper respiratory tract
Functions of the larynx
1. the larynx is an air passage between the pharynx and the trachea
2. the other function of the larynx is speaking
the cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing
Vocal cords
1. two folds on either side of the glottis, 2. vibrate to produce speech sounds
Ciliated epitheium
sweeps mucus and pathogens upward
Thyroid cartilage
the largest most anterior cartilage of the larynx
the air passage between the voceal cords
Larynx (cranial nerves)
the cranial nerves that are the motor nerves to the larynx are the:
1. vagus nerves
2. accessory nerves
Vocal cords
1. speech sounds are produced when the intrinsic muscles of the larynx pull the vocal cords together across the glottis
2. the vocal cords are then vibrated by exhaled air
the trachea is an air passage that extens from the larynx to the primary bronchi
C-shaped rings
1. the tissue that forms C-shaped rings in the wall of the trachea is cartilage
2. the incomplete rings keep the trachea open
3. the tissue of the tracheal mucosa that sweeps mucus & pathogens upward is ciliated epithelium
1. the right & left bronchi are branches of the trachea
2. the secondary bronchi are within the lungs
there are TWO in the LEFT lung
THREE in the RIGHT lung
the smaller branches of the broncial tree are called bronchioles, and they differ in structure from the bronchi in that there is no cartilage in their walls to keep them open
the smallest bronchioles end in the clusters of alveoli in the lungs
Order of pathway of air through cavity
1. Nose
2. Nasal cavities
3. Nasopharynx
4. Oropharynx
5. Laryngopharynx
6. Larynx
7. Primary bronchi
9. Secondary bronchi
10. Bronchioles
11. Alveoli
Structures of the lower respiratory tract
1. Primary bronchi
2. Secondary bronchi
3. Bronchioles
4. Alveoli
Visceral pleura
the serous membrane that is on the surface of the lungs
Parietal pleura
the serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
Serous fluid
1. the serous fluid prevents friction between the pleural membranes as the lungs expand and recoil
2. the serous fluid also keeps the pleural membranes together during breathing
Where are the lungs located?
1. the lungs are within the thoracic cavity and are protected from mechanical injury by the rib cage
2. medial to the lungs is the diaphragm, one of the respiratory muscles
1. the indentation of the medial side of each lung is called the hilus
2. at the hilus, the primary bronchus and the pulmonary artery and veins enter the lung
3. the alveoli of the lungs are made of alveolar type I cells, they are SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM tissue
Pulmonary capillaries
1. the pulmonary capillaries around the alveoli are made of SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM tissue
2. the important characteristic of this tissue is that it is THIN to permit diffusion (exchange) of gases
Tissue in the spaces between the alveoli
1. the tissue in the spaces between the alveoli that is important for normal exhalation is elastic connective tissue
2. each alveolus is lined with a thin layer of tissue fluid that is important to permit: diffusion of gases
Pulmonary surfactant
1. the tissue fluid is mixed with pulmonary surfactant that decreases the surface tension of the tissue fluid and permits inflamation of the alveolus
2. surfactant is produced by: alveolar type II cells
Two phases of movement of breathing
1. inhalation
2. exhalation
Respiratory centers
the respiratory centers are located in the brain, in the:
1. medulla
2. pons
Respiratory muscles
1. the external & internal intercostal muscles, which are supplied by the intercostal nerves
2. the diaphragm, which is supplied y the phrenic nerves
3. contractions of the respiratory muscles produce changes in air pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli to bring about ventilation
Atmospheric pressure
1. the pressure of the air around us
2. 760 mmHg at sea level
Intrapleural pressure
1. the pressure within the potential pleural space
2. always slightly below atomspheric pressure
Intrapulmonic pressure
1. the pressure in the bronchial tree and alveoli
2. fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during pressure
Order of normal inhalation
1. the medulla generates motor impulses
2. motor impulses travel along the phrenic (fren ik) & intercostal nerves
3. the diaphragm & external intercostal muscles contract
4. the chest cavity is enlarged in all directions
5. the chest wall expands the parietal pleura, which expands the visceral pleura, which in turn expands the lungs
6. intrapulmonic pressure decreases
7. air enters the lungs until intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure
Deep inhalation
a deep breath (more than normal) requires a more forceful contraction of the respiratory muscles, which in turn would bring about greater expansion of the lungs
Proper sequence of normal exhalation
1. motor impulses from the medulla decreases
2. the diaphragm & external intercostal muscles relax
3. the chest cavity becomes smaller, and the elastic connective tissue around the alveoli recoils
4. the lungs are compressed
5. intrapulmonic pressure rises above atmospheric pressure
6. air is forced out of the lungs until intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure
Normal exhalation
Normal exhalation is considered a passive process because it does not require the contraction of the respiratory muscles
Forced exhalation
a forced exhalation requires contraction of the internal intercostal muscles to pull the ribs down & in, or contraction of the abdominal muscles to compress the abdomonal organs and push the diaphragm upward
Tidal volume
in one normal inhalation and exhalation
Vital capacity
involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation
Inspiratory reserve
beyond tidal, in the deepest inhalation
Expiratory reserve
beyond tidal, in the most forceful exhalation
Minute respiratory volume
inhaled & exhaled in 1 minute
Residual air
remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation
the expansibility of the lungs and thoracic wall
Causes of decreased pulmonary compliance
1. pneumonia
2. asthma
3. TB
Causes of decreased thoracic compliance
1. fractured ribs
2. pleurisy
3. ascites
Normal alveolar ventilation
Normal compliance is necessary for normal alveolar ventilation, and anything that decreases compliance increases physiologic dead space
External respiration
the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration
the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the tissue fluid (cells)
Two respiratory gases
1. O2
2. CO2
Inhaled air (atmosphere)
is approximately:
21%/O2 & 0.04%/CO2
Exhaled air
is approximately:
16%/O2 & 4.5%/CO2
Value of concentration
the value that is used to express the concentration of O2 & CO2 in the air ir in the body fluids is called parietal pressure & abbreviated P
1. gateway
2. filtration
3. humidifier
Olfactory receptors
1. upper nasal cavities
2. detect vaporized chemicals that have been inhaled
Path through the pulmonary capillaries
the blood that leaves the pulmonary capillaries will return to the heart and then be pumped by the left ventricle to the body