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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
If deprived of certain signals cells can sometimes undergo...
apoptosis
Cell signaling involves a messenger (ligand) which can be...
Small peptides, amino acids, derivatives of lipids, steroids, dissolved gases, nucleotides, etc.
Cell signaling, in addition to the messenger, also involves a receptor. How many genes are thought to be involved in the making of receptors?
1,500 and the number of receptors that can be created with that number of genes is greater than 1,500 because of alternative gene splicing and post-translational modifications
If a cell reacts rapidly to a signal what process is occurring?
Altered protein function
If a cell reacts slowly to a signal what process is occurring?
Gene activation and protein synthesis.
Direct cell-to-cell signaling occurs a lot during...
development
Short range cell signaling is referred to as?
Paracrine signaling
Long range cell signaling is referred to as?
Endocrine signaling
When a cell self-signals it is called?
Autocrine signaling
The same signal can affect different cells in different ways.
acetylcholine can...
-make skeletal muscles contract
-salivary glands secrete
-affect heart muscle contractions
The two classes of cell receptors are?
Intracellular receptors
cell surface receptors
Which of the two classes of cell receptors are more common?
cell surface receptors
Frequently the intracellular receptor is what?
A transcription factor.
What are the three stages in cell signaling?
1. reception
2. transduction (amplification)
3. response