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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the most important white grapes of Greece?
Assyrtiko, Moscofilero, Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains, Robola, Roditis, and Savatiano
What are the most important red grapes of Greece?
*Agiorgitiko, Kotsifali, Limnio, Mandelari, Mavrodaphne, Negoska, *Xynomavro, Stavroto and Krassato. (* denotes the two most important red grapes).
What are the most important red wines of Greece?
Archarnes, Goumenissa, Mavrodaphne of Patras (a sweet red), Naoussa, Nemea, and Rapsani
What are the most important white wines of Greece?
Mantinia (white and rose), Muscat of Patras (sweet), Muscat of Samos (sweet), Patras, Retsina, Santorini, and Visanto (sweet)
What wine accounts for roughly 30 percent of Greece's total production of table wine?
Retsina
What is retsina?
A white wine made most commonly from the savatiano grape (a relatively neutral white grape), although many grape varieties can be--and are--used. Small amounts of resin from the Aleppo pine are added to the grape juice as it ferments, contributing the unmistakeable piney flavor and turpentine-like aroma. It is best consumed young, during the first several months after it is released.
What are two good producers of retsina likely to be found in the United States?
Kourtakis and Boutari
What are the three different ways that Greek wines labeled?
By varietal
By appellation
By proprietary name
What is Assyrtiko?
a high-acid white grape native to Santorini (but grown throughout the Greek islands). It has pleasant floral aromas and citrus flavors.
What is Moschofilero?
a higher-profile white varietal responsible for some of the lean, perfumed wines throughout the Peloponnese regions
What is Rhoditis?
A white grape that is grown throughout central Greece and that produces light, fragrant white wines.
Makes the simple, dry white of Patras in Peloponnese.
What are Savatiano and Athiri?
Both are grapes widely used in white wines in Attica and on some of the Greek islands.
Savatiano is the most common grape of retsina.
What kind of red wines does Greece produce?
Everything from soft, fruity reds to dense, tannic wines, and even a few fortified dessert wines.
What is Xynomarvo?
Translates to "sour black"
An acidic and tannic grape grown throughout central and northern Greece.
Produces rich, age-worthy, dry red wines.
Is the leading grape in Goumenissa and the earthy, sometimes spicy Naoussa.
What is Mavrodaphne?
One of the top grapes used to produce sweet red wines.
Typically shows plum, raisin and chocolate characteristics.
What is Mandelari?
A grape used widely throughout the Greek islands (especially Crete and Rhodes).
Produces powerful reds.
What is Agiorgitiko?
A grape known for producing softer, fruit-laden reds throughout southern Greece.
What are the main wine regions of Greece?
Macedonia
- Goumenissa
- Naoussa
- Cotes do Meliton
Central Greece (or Thessaly)
- Thessaly
- Rapsani (within Thessaly)
- Attica
- Epirus
Peloponnese
- Patras
- Nemea
- Mantinia
Aegean Islands
- Samos
- Santorini
Crete
Why didn't Greece's wine industry shift away from simple table wines toward wines of finer quality until the mid-1980s?
Phylloxera arrived in the 1890's and stayed for several decades, followed by two world wars, and then Greece's own civil war, which left the industry in ruins. Political and economical stability didn't begin until between the 1960s and 1980s.
What are the four quality classifications of Greek wine laws? (top to bottom)
OPAP - Onomasia Proelefseos Anoteras Piotitos (roughly translates to Appellation of Origin of Superior Quality) This is primarily for dry reds and whites.
OPE - Onomasia Proelefseos Eleghomeni (roughly Controlled Appellation of Origin). This is primarily for sweet wines.
Topikos Inos - similar to the Italian IGT
Epitrapezios Inos (roughly "table wine) - is the lowest classification.
What are the aging requirements for the reserve and grand reserve levels (which are within the Greek OPAP and OPE appellation designations)?
Reserve:
- White: 2 years (min. 6 mos in barrel)
- Red: 3 years (min. 6 mos in barrel)

Grand Reserve:
- White: 3 years (min. 12 mos in barrel)
- Red: 4 years (min. 2 yrs in barrel)
What are the top wines within the Epitrapezios Inos category labeled as? What are the aging requirements?
Cava
- Whites: 2 years (min. 6 mos in barrel)
- Reds: 3 years (min. 6 mos in new oak or 12 mos in old oak)
How are Greek vines typically trained? Why?
How: close to the ground in a circular fashion, coiling each vine into what's known as a stefani (or "crown"). In the center of the stefani is where the grapes are found.
Why: to protect them from the fast, cooling maritime breezes. This is especially common in the islands.
Where are Greek some vineyards planted in the warmer, seaside areas? Why?
Where: North facing slopes.
Why: Because the warm climate and sunlight reflected off the sea can sometimes become a problem, causing the grapes too quickly, which results in monochromatic flavors.
What international grape varieties can sometimes be found planted in Greece?
Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon (others are planted as well, but all of the international varieties account for only a fraction of the wines from Greece).
For what wines is Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains commonly used?
The famous aromatic, sweet and often lightly fortified wine Muscat of Patras (from Peloponnese) and the equally famous, apricot-ish and lightly fortified Muscat of Samos (from Samos, an Aegean Island).
What is Santorini's <i>vinsanto</i> wine? How is it made?
A sweet wine similar to Tuscany's vin santo. It is made from assyrtiko and mandelari grapes that have been dried to a "half-baked" status on straw mats to concentrate the flavors. The grapes are then fermented and aged in a barrel for a decade to create a mellow, rich flavor.
What is the most important wine region of Crete? What are its wines like?
Archarnes. These nearly famous wines are often made from local varieties (commonly kotsifali and mandelari) to create impressive, well-balanced red wines.
What percentage of Greek's wine production is dominated by white wines?
75-80%
What is the common grape and style of Naoussa red wines?
xynomarvo. Sharp, powerful; can be dark and richly textured when treated as a Grand Reserve.
What type of wine does Goumenissa produce?
xynomarvo reds that are blended with the soft, less dramatic negoska grape.
What is Cotes de Meliton and what is it's best known wine?
A relatively new wine region in Macedonia created by the Carras family with the help of Emile Peynaud.
The most famous wine--named Domaine Carras--is a blend of cabernet sauvignon and limino, a rare grape known for a delicious, full-blown spicy and earthy character.
What are the three most important wine regions of Peloponnese?
Nemea
Mantinia
Patras
Describe the wines of Nemea
Made from the highly-regarded agiorgitiko.

Can be almost port-like in lushness with a signature spicy and peppery flavor.

Thought to have been the palace wines of Agamemnon.