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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a comparative science that examines all societies, ancient and modern, simple and complex; offers a unique cross-cultural perspective, constantly comparing the customs of one society with those of others
AN is holistic
it studies the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language and culter.
organized life in groups
distinctly human;
traditions and customs, transmitted through learning that play a large role in determining the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them
Learned by growing up in a particular society
Culture is not biological
members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans
the process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses;
involves interplay between culture and biology
general anthropology
academic discipline of anthropology
4 main subdisciplines of AN
1. sociocultural
2. archaeological
3. biological
4. linguistic anthropology
cultural anthropology
study of human society and culture;
describes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture;
ethnographer gathers data, organizes it and describes, analyzes and interprets it to build and present an account
examines, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography--the data gathered in different societies;
uses datato compare and contrast and to make generalizations about society and culture
focus on more general
reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains
biological (physical) anthropology
studies human biological diversity in time and space
incl:hominid evolution, human genetics, and human biological plasticity, primatology
linguistic anthropology
study of languages of the present and making inferences about those of the past
2 dimensions of anthropology
1. theoretical/academic anthropology
2. practicing or applied anthropology (public health, family planning, economic development)
public archaeology
includes activities as cultural resource management, contract archaeology, public educational prprograms and historic preservations
cultural resource management
decised what needs saving, and to preserve significant information about the past when sites cannot be saved;
typically work for federal, state or county agencies
cultural anthropologists
work with social workers, businesspeople, advertising professionals, factory workers, nurses, physicians, georontologists, mental-health professionals and economic development experts
believing your culture is superior and app.ying one's own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people in other countries
proper roles for applied anthropologists
1. identifying needs for change that local people perceive
2. working with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially sensitivie change
3. protect local people from harmful policies and projects that threaten them
Bronislaw Malinowski (1929)
proposed that "practical anthropology" should focus on Westernization, the diffusion of European culture into tribal societies
antohropological theory
body of findings and generaliztions of the subdisciplines
Anthropology and Education
refers to anthropological research in classrooms, homes, and neighborhoods
Urban anthropology
has theoretical and applied dimensions;
the cross-cultural and ethnographic study of global urbanization and life in cities
Medical anthropology
both academic/theoretical and applied/practical; it includes biological and sociocultural anthropologists; examines questions such as which diseases affect different populations, how illness is socially constructed, and how one treats illness in effective and culturally appropriate ways
scientifically identified health threat
condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia, liver flukes)
fastest-spreading and most dangerous parasitic infection now known
"disease-theory systems"
system used by a society to identify, classify and explain illness;
1. personalistic
2. naturalistic
3. emotionalistic
personalistic disease theory
blame illness on agents: sorcerers, witches, or ancestral spirits
naturalistic disease theory
biomedicine-aims to link illness to scientifically demonstrated agents which bear no personal malice toward their victims
emotionalistic disease theory
emotional experiences cause illness
health care systems
beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and at preventing diagnosing, and curing illness
emerges through a culturally defined process of selection and training and are certified by older practitioners and acquire a professional image
scientific medicine
pathology microbiology, biochemisty, surgery, diagnostic technology and applications
Key features of anthropology in Business
1. ethnography and observation as ways of gathering data
2. cross-cultural expertise
3. focus on cultural diversity
4. establishing how consumers use products