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134 Cards in this Set

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What are the six steps of the Windows 2000 boot phase?
Power on self test (Post),Initial startup, Boot loader, Selecting the operating system, Detecting hardware, and Selecting a configuration
Six Steps in order
All Computers, whether hosting Windows 2000 or another operating system, go through a similar boot process when they are turned on. In Windows 2000, this process is broken down into two major phases, the _________ and the ________.
boot phase and the load phase
phase is second word of each
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for:Windows 2000 boot loader for PC machines located in the Root of startup disk.
Ntldr
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Windows 2000 PC boot menu information located in the Root of startup disk?
Boot.ini
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Provides DOS boot information for dual-boot PCs, located in the Root of startup disk.
Bootsect.dos
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Windows 2000 hardware detection program, located in the Root of startup disk.
Ntdetect.com
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Lets Windows 2000 access SCSI drives on PCs with SCSI controller with onboard BIOS disabled, located in Root of Startup disk.
NTbootdd.sys
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Windows 2000 operating system kernel located in %systemroot%\System32.
Ntosknl.exe
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Hardware abstraction layer code (CPU driver for x86 chips) located in %systemroot%\System32.
Hal.dll
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: Key Windows 2000 Registry data located in %systemroot%\System32.
SYSTEM key
In the Windows 2000 startup files, what is the file name for: PC-specific device drivers for Windows 2000 use, located in the %systemroot%\System32.
Device drivers
Boots Windows 2000 with only the minimum required system files and device drivers. _____ _____ does not load networking components.
Safe Mode
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Boots Windows 2000 in the same manner as Safe Mode, but adds networking components.
Safe Mode with Networking
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Boots Windows 2000 in the same manner as Safe Mode, but boots to a command prompt instead of to the GUI environment.
Safe Mode with Command Prompt
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
A toggle that enables or disables the boot process and writes details to a log file regarding drivers and services. The log file is located at %systemroot%\Ntblog.txt
Enable Boot logging
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Boots Windows 2000 normally, but uses only the basic VGA video driver
Enable VGA Mode
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Boots Windows 2000 with the Last Known Good Configuration (LKGC), the state of the Registry as it was recorded during the last successful user logon
Last Known Good Configuration
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Valid only on Windows 2000 domain controllers; used to boot Windows 2000 and restore Active Directory.
Directory Services Restore Mode
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
Boots Windows 2000 normally, but sends debugging information to another system over a serial cable. Details about using this option are included in the Windows 2000 Resource kit.
Debugging Mode
Advanced startup options/contents of menu are somewhat dependent on installed components such as Remote Installation Service, but typically contains these items (Pressing F8 gets this menu)
What key do you press to get the Advanced Options Menu to appear in addition startup options.
F8
Starts Windows 2000 in standard VGA mode (640 x 480)
/BASEVIDEO
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Loads the debugger and allows access by a host debugger connected to the computer
/DEBUG
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Displays the device driver names when they are loaded.
/SOS
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Boots into Safe Mode
/SAFEBOOT:MINIMAL
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Boots into Safe Mode with Networking.
/SAFEBOOT:NETWORK
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Boots into Safe Mode with Command Prompt
/SAFEBOOT:MINIMAL(ALTERNATESHELL)
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Boots into Directory Services Restore Mode (domain controllers only)
/SAFEBOOT:DSREPAIR
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Enables boot logging
/BOOTLOG
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Boots without showing the splash screen. Does not determine whether Windows 2000 GUI environment or command prompt is booted.
/NOGUIBOOT
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
Performs a verification of hardware components rather than full inspection, to speed boot time.
/FASTDETECT
List of switches that can be added to the end of entries in the operating systems section of Boot.ini. In most cases you'll want to emply the F8 Advanced Options menu to access troubleshooting boot methods.
This portion of the path indicates the type of the device on which the operating system resides. scsi is used if the operating system is on a SCSI hard disk that is connected to a SCSI adapter that has a disabled build-in BIOS. multi is used for other hard disk including IDE, EIDE, and SCSI with a build-in BIOS. The (n) indicates the hardware adapter from which to boot. It is replaced with a number corresponding to the correct hardware adapter, numbered ordinally (starting with zero.)
scsi(n) or multi(n)
In the Boot.ini file the path pointing to the \winnt directory is written using the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname naming conventions. These pathnames are described as above:
The portion of the path indicates which SCSI bus number should be used. The (n) always equals zero when the adapter is a multiadapter (that is, the ARC494 path starts with multi). Otherwise, it is numbered ordinally.
disk(n)
In the Boot.ini file the path pointing to the \winnt directory is written using the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname naming conventions. These pathnames are described as above:
This portion of the path indicates the SCSI LUN number or selects which of the hard disk attached to the adapter contains the operating system. (n) always equals zero when the adapter is SCSI. Otherwise, it is numbered ordinally.
rdisk(n)
In the Boot.ini file the path pointing to the \winnt directory is written using the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname naming conventions. These pathnames are described as above:
This portion of the path selects the disk partition that contains the operating system files. Partition is numbered cardinally (starting with 1)
partition(n)
In the Boot.ini file the path pointing to the \winnt directory is written using the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname naming conventions. These pathnames are described as above:
The final portion of the path indicates the directory on the partition in which the operating system files are found. The default path for Windows 2000 is \Winnt
\path
In the Boot.ini file the path pointing to the \winnt directory is written using the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname naming conventions. These pathnames are described as above:
What is the safest way to make changes to the Boot.ini file? What are the two options you have to edit it.
Best way is using the Control Panel by opening the System applet in the Control Panel and selecting the Advanced Tab then clicking the Startup Recovery button, you can make certain changes to your setup. (other way is to use text editor way)
The Windows 2000 load phase begins when the kernel assumes control of the machine. It consist of the what five stages?
Loading the Kernel
Initializing the Kernel
Services load
Windows 2000 system start
Logging on
All events in Initializing the kernel are automatically saved in the _____ _____.
System log
What is the default entry for the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Sessions Manager\BootExecute?
autocheck autochk (makes sure that the files stored on your hard drive are always consistent. It detects and attempts to repair damaged files and directories. As with any repair utility, it cannot guarantee that all files can be fixed or retrieved.
A special PC ROM chip that contains sufficient program code to let a computer perform code to let a computer perform a POST routine, to check its hardware components, and to operate basic input and output routines for keyboard or mouse input, and screen output.
BIOS (basic input/output system)
In Windows 2000, the disk that contains the Windows 2000 operating system files.
boot partition
The process of bringing up a completely functional computer, starting from initial power-up (or reboot) through the boot phases and load phases involved in starting the hardware, finding a boot loader, and then loading and initializing an operating system.
boot process
The list of bootable operating systems (or versions)that Boot.ini provides for display at the end of the Windows 2000 boot phase.
boot selection menu
A special, battery-powered chip that can store not only the software necessary to conduct the POST, but also the basic, nonvolatile configuration information that POST uses to check the RAM installed in a system, the number and type of hard drives, the type of keyboard and mouse, and so forth.
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)
A special set of Registry values that describe a Windows 2000 machine's startup configuation that is saved each time a Windows machine is shut down (as the current configuration) and each time a user successfully logs on for the first time after bootup (as the Last Known Good Configuration)
control set
The control set for Windows 2000 that is automatically saved by the system in a special set of Registry keys the first time a user logs on successfully to a system immediately after it has booted up. This information provides a safe fallback to use when booting the system the next time, if changes made to the Registry in the interim cause problems with booting (or if changes have been introduced that a user does not wish to retain on the system).
Last Known Good Configuration (LKGC)
The Windows 2000 ______ ______ begins when the kernel assumes control of the machine, and consists of the following five steps: 1. loading the kernel 2. initializeing the kernel 3.loading services 4. starting the Windows 2000 system, and 5. logging on. All five steps must be completely successfully for a complete load to occur.
load phase
The partition table for a disk, and the code that permits the partition table to be read. A functioning MBR is required to boot a hard disk.
Master Boot Record (MBR)
The Windows 2000 loader program that manages the boot and load phases of Windows 2000 on a PC.
Ntldr
The partition that contains the information the file system uses to access the volume, including a physical description of the disk, the name and version of the operating system files, the bootstrap code, and an instruction that allows the Master Boot Record to find all this information.
partition boot sector
The system check performed by all computers when they are turned on.
power-on self test (POST)
In Windows 2000, the disk that contains the MBR and partition boot sector.
system partition
Backs up all selected files and marks them as being backed up.
Normal (or full) backup
Backs up only the selected files that have been created or modified the day that the backup is being performed but does not mark the files as being backed up.
Daily backup
Backs up only the selected files that have been created or modified since the last full backup, but does not mark the files as being backed up.
Differential backups
Backs up only the selected files that have been created or modified since the last normal or incremental backup and marks the files as being backed up.
Incremental backup
Recovery Console options: What command changes the attributes of a file or directory?
attrib
Recovery Console options: Executes the commands specified in a text file.
batch
Recovery Console options: Changes directories or displays the current directory name
chdir (cd)
Recovery Console options: Checks and reports on the status of the disk
chkdsk
Recovery Console options: Windows 2000 starts while logging all of the drivers and services that were and were not loaded during the boot process.
cls
Recovery Console options: Copies files
copy
Recovery Console options: Deletes files
delete (del)
Recovery Console options: Displays the directory structure
dir
Recovery Console options: Disables a service or driver
disable
Recovery Console options: Manages partitions
diskpart
Recovery Console options: Enables or starts a service or driver
enable
Recovery Console options: Exits the Recovery Console and restarts the computer.
Exit
Recovery Console options: Extracts files from compressed files (can use cab files)
expand
Recovery Console options: Writes a new partition boot sector onto the system partition.
fixboot
Recovery Console options: Repairs the Master Boot Record
fixmbr
Recovery Console options: formats a disk
format
Recovery Console options: Displays a list of commands available in the recovery Console
help
Recovery Console options: Lists the services available.
listsvc
Recovery Console options: logs on to Windows 2000
logon
Recovery Console options: displays the drive letter mappings
map
Recovery Console options: creates a new folder
mkdir (md)
Recovery Console options: displays a text file (readme file in recovery console lets you see text)
more
Recovery Console options: Deletes a folder
rmdir (rd)
Recovery Console options: Renames a file
rename (ren)
Recovery Console options: Displays and sets console environment variables
set
Recovery Console options: Sets the current folder to the Systemroot folder
systemroot
Prompts the user with a list of OS options if there is one, then an unattended installation begins
automatic setup
installation option
Allows the user to specify the computer name and the location where the computer account will reside in Active directory
Custom setup
installation option
Restarts the remote OS installation process if previous installation attempt failed
Restart a Previous Setup Attempt
installation option
Provides the user with access to third-party maintenace, pre-OS installation maintenance, and troubleshooting tools
Maintenance and troubleshooting
installation options
After pressing "R" to reinstall Windows 2000 or repair your system using the emergency repair process. You then have two options for repairing Windows 2000, What are they?
Fast Repair-Requires no user interaction;automatically attempts to repair problems related to the Registry, system files, the boot volume, and your startup environment and Manual Repair: Enables the user to choose to repair to the Registry, system files, the boot volume, or startup environment.
List the key elements and explain how each relates to disaster protection and recovery.
User data management:Data backup
User Settings management: PC configuration recovery and
Software installation and Maintenance:Application installation and repair
What are two methods you can use to create a backup?
Backup Wizard and click on the Backup Tab
Name two ways you can access the Recovery Console?
From a command prompt: changing directories in Windows 2000 CD, Run \i386\Winnt32.exe/cmdcons to install the Recovery Console. When you reboot your machine, you'll notice a new option for starting Windows 2000 Professional with Recovery Console. Or
Use the Windows 2000 CD or startup disk to start you computer, Select the Recovery Console option when you are prompted to choose repair options.
A backup configuration that determines how often data is backed up and the way old and new files should be handled. The types of _________s are copy, daily, differential, incremental, and normal
backup type
A tool that enables users to back up and restore their data and system configuration in case of a hardware or software failure.
Backup utility
A disk that contains configuration information about your PC. It can be used to restore a PC if Windows will not start or the system files are corrupt or missing.
Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)
A component of IntelliMirror technologies that use group policies to place specified user folders on a share on the network.
folder redirection
A set of features within Windows 2000 that utilizes policies, folder redirection, and the Window Installer Service (WIS) for backing up and restoring users data, personalized settings, and applications.
IntelliMirror
A standard environment in PC98-compliant computers and network computers that can be used for a remote OS installation.
PXE (Pre-booted execution)
A command-line interface that provides administrative tools useful for recovering a system that is not booting correctly.
Recovery Console
A component of Remote Installation Services (RIS) that can install Windows 2000 Professional on remote-boot-enabled PCs across a network.
remote OS installation
An optional service in Windows 2000 Server that works with various other services to enable remote installations, including a remote operating system installation.
(RIS) Remote Installation Services
A type of installation used with remote OS installation whereby an administrator can take an entire image of one Windows 2000 Professional machine and install that image onto other workstations.
Remote Installation Preparation (RIPrep)
A windows 2000 component that manages the installation and removal of applications by applying a set of centrally defined setup rules during the installation process.
Windows Installer Service (WIS)
A log automatically created by Windows 2000 that records application events, alert, and system messages.
Application Log
A detailed collection of all information related to the hardware and software products that can compose your computers (and even your entire intranet).
CIF-Computer information File
An application error debugger. This diagnostic tool detects application failures and logs diagnostic details.Data captured by ____ ____ is stored in the Drwtsn32.log file.
Dr. Watson
The utility used to view the three logs automatically created by Windows 2000: the System log, Application log, and Security log.
Event Viewer
Similar to a service pack, except that a _____ ______ addresses only a single problem or a small number of problems, and may not be fully tested.
hot fix
A log automatically created by Windows 2000 that records security related events.
Security log
A collection of code replacements, patches, error corrections, new applications, version improvements, or service-specific configuration setting from Microsoft that correct, replace, or hide the deficiencies of the original product or preceding _______ ________ or hot fixes.
service pack
A log automatically created by Windows 2000 that records information and alerts about the Windows 2000 processes.
System log
What are the most common tools in Windows 2000, used for troubleshooting?
Event Viewer, Computer Management tools
What are five common installation problems?
media errors, domain controller communication difficulties. Stop message errors or halting on blue screen, hardware problems and dependency failures.
What are the problems most often associated with the printer?
physical configuration or spooling problems.
What is the most common problem caused in RAS and network problems?
misconfiguration
What is used to repair portions of Windows 2000 after its release?
Service packs and hot fixes
Microsoft has provided several avenues to gain access to information about the operation and management of Windows 2000, including a substancial collection of __________ __________.
troubleshooting documentation
What are some references for Troubleshooting?
Microsoft Web site: http://www.microsoft.com/windows/, the knowledge base, TechNet, Resource Kits
True or False
Permission problems (problems with accessing or managing system resources such as folders, files, or printers) usually occur when a user is a member of groups with conflicting permissions or when permissions are managed on a per-account basis.
True
True or False
The component on your computer that experiences the most activity is the network card, even more so than your keyboard and mouse.
False/ hard drive
True or False
Inspect the RAS-related logs: Device.log and Modemlog.txt. Look for errors involving failure to connect, failure to dial, failure to authenticate, failure to negotiate encryption, failure to establish a common protocol, and link termination.
True
True or False
Check the status and CPU usage of the Print server file, using the Task Manager. If the spooler seems to be stalled by not receiving CPU time or is comsuming most of the CPU, you should stop and restart the Spooler Services.
False/ Spoolsv.exe file
True or False
Check the free space on the drive hosting the spooler file, and change its destination. The amount of free space needed for the spooler file is determined by the size and number of your print jobs and the settings of the logical printer; typically 200 MB is sufficient.
False/according to book 100 MB is sufficient.
The ______ _________ records information and alerts related to the Windows 2000 internal processes, including hardware and operating system errors, warnings, and general information messages.
system log
The ________ ________ records security-related events, including audit events of failed logons, user-right alterations, and attempted objects access without sufficient permissions.
Security log
The ___________ ________ records application events, alerts, and system messages.
Application log
The _________ _________ section of Boot.ini lists the available operating systems. Each listing contains the path to the boot partition for the operating system, the text displayed in the boot loader screen, and optional parameters.
operating systems
During the _____ _____ , the kernel starts the session Manager. The Session Manager needs the entries that are stored in the Registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager
load phase
When you use ____ ____ and choose either "Backup everything" or "Back up selected files," the backup type defaults to Normal or Incremental, respectively. You can change the backup type from the Completing _____ ____ screen by clicking the Advanced button.
backup Wizard
You must have an _______ or a member of the _______ _______ group to backup or restore files using the Backup utility.
Administrator or Backup Operators
Operators the third option, backing up the _______ _____ data, provides a way to back up the Registry, the COM+ Class Registration database, and system boot files. By backing up these files, you can restore your PC's configuration to its original state if necessary.
system state
______ ______ is used to view system messages regarding the failure and /or success of various key occurrences within the Windows 2000 environment. Details about system errors, security issues, and application activities are recorded in the logs viewed through the ______ _______.
Event Viewer
______ ______ are problems with the distribution CD-ROM itself, the copy of the distribution files on a network drive, or the communications link between the installation and the distribution files. The only regularly successful solution to ______ ______ is to switch media, for example, copying the files to a network drive, linking to a server's CD-ROM, or installing a CD-ROM on the workstation. If _____ _____ are encountered, always restart the installation process from the beginning.
Media errors
Most partition, boot sector, and drive configuration faults can be corrected or recovered from by using the ____ ________ tool from the ______ _______ utility of Administrative Tools.
Disk Management and Computer Management
The master boot record (MBR) is the area of a hard drive that contains the data structure that initiates the boot process. If the MBR fails, the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) cannot be used to repair it. Instead, you'll need to use a DOS 6.04 bootable floppy disk and execute ____________ from the command prompt.
FDISK/MBR
Windows 2000 has an application error debugger called Dr. Watson. This diagnostic tool detects application failures and logs diagnostic details. Data captured by Dr. Watson is stored in the ___________ file.
Drwtsn32.log