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88 Cards in this Set

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Terms that relate to the structural organization of the body
cells, tissue, organs, systems
cytology
the study of cells
anaplasia
A change in the structure of cells; loss of differentiation and the cell reverts to a more primitive form
aplasia
The cells fail to develop into any organ or tissue
dysplasia
Any abnormal development of tissue or organs
hyperplasia
The excessive formation of cells or tissue somewhere in the body
hypoplasia
Incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue
neoplasia
The new and abnormal development of cells that my be benign or malignant
histologist
One who studies tissue
Body Planes
1. Midsagittal Plane
2. Frontal (coronal) Plane
3. Transverse Plane
sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left sides
Midsagittal Plane
Divides the body into equal right and left sides
Midline
The "line" created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves.
Frontal (coronal) Plane
Divides the body into front (anterior) portions and back (posterior) portions
Transverse Plane
Divides the body into an upper (superior) portion and a lower (inferior) portion
Medial
Towards the Midline
Lateral
Towards the side of the body; away from the midline
The Body Regions
1. Right Hypochondriac Region
2. Epigastric Region
3. Left Hypochondriac Region
4. Right Lumbar Region
5. Umbilitcal Region
5. Left Lumbar Region
7. Right Inguianl Region
8. Hypogastric Region
9. Left Inguinal Region
The Four Body Quadrants
1. Right Upper Quadarant (RUQ)
2. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
3. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
4. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Munro's Point
Left side of the abdomen
McBurney's Point
Right side fo the abdomen -
Pain here suggests appendicitis.
Major Body Cavities
1. Ventral Cavitiy - the front
part of the body
2. Dorsal Cavity - the back
part of the body
The Ventral Cavity Subdivisions
1. Thoracic
2. Abdominal
3. Pelvic
Thoracic Cavity
1. Rib & chest area
2. Contains the lungs, heart,
aorta, essophagus, trachea
3. thorac/o = chest
-ic = pertaining to
Abdominal Cavity
1. Separated from the thoracic
cavity by the diaphragm
2. Contains liver, gallbladder
spleen, stomach, pancreas
intestines, kidneys
3. abdomin/o = abdomen
-al = pertaining to
Pelvic Cavity
1. Contains the urinary
bladder, reproductive
organs
2. pelv/i = pelvis
-ic = pertaining to
Abdominopelvic Cavity
1. When the abdominal and
pelvic cavity are referred
to together.
2. Refers to the space between
the diaphragm and groin
Dorsal Cavity Subdivisions
1. Cranial
2. Spinal
Cranial Cavity
1. Contains the brain
2. crani/o = skull
-al = pertaining to
Spinal Cavity
1. Contains the nerves of the
spinal cord
2. spin/o = spine
-al = pertaining to
The 5 Divisions of the Back
1. Cervical Vertebrae
2. Thoaracic Vertebrae
3. Lumbar Vertebrae
4. Sacrum
5. Coccyx
Cervical Vertebrae
1. First 7 segments of the
spinal column
2. Make up the bones of the
neck
3. C1 - C7
4. cervic/o = neck
-al = pertaining to
Thoracic Vertebrae
1. Consist of 12 vertebrae of
the spinal column after
the cervical vertebrae
2. Make up the vertebral bones
of the chest
3. T1 - T12
4. thorac/o = chest
-ic = pertaining to
Lumbar Vertebrae
1. 5 large segments of the
movable part of the spinal
column
2. L1 - L5
3. Largest and strongest
vertebrae of spinal column
4. lumb/o = loins, lower back
-ar = pertaining to
Sacrum
1. Located below the lumbar
vertebrae
2. Single, triangular shaped
bone resulting from the
fusion of 5 sacral bones
in the child
3. sacr/o = sacrum
-um = noun ending
Coccyx
1. Tailbone
2. Single bone resulting from
the fusion of 4 coccygeal
bones in the child
Body Region 1
1. Right Hypochondriac
region
2. Located in the upper right
section of abdomen,
beneath cartilage of lower
ribs
3. Includes right lobe of
liver & the gallbladder
Body Region 2
1. Epigastric Region
2. Located bw Right & Left
Hypochondriac Regions in
upper section of abdomen,
beneath cartilage of lower
ribs
3. Includes parts of R & L
lobes of liver, major
portion of stomach
Body Region 3
1. Left Hypochondriac Region
2. Located in the upper left
section of abdomen,
beneath the cartilage of
lower ribs
3. Includes small part of
stomach & part of lge
intestines
Body Region 4
1. Right Lumbar Region
2. Located in middle-right
section of abdomen, beneath
right hypochondriac region
3. Includes parts of lge & sm
intestines
Body Region 5
1. Umbilical Region
2. Located in the middle
section of the abdomen, bw
the right & left lumbar
regions, directly beneath
the epigastric region
3. Includes part of transverse
colon and small intestine
Body Region 6
1. Left Lumbar Region
2. Located in the middle-left
section of abdomen, beneath
left hypochondriac region
3. Includes parts of small
intestine and colon
Body Region 7
1. Right Inguinal (iliac)
Region
2. Located lower-right section
of abdomen, beneath right
lumbar region
3. Includes parts of small
intestine and cecum
Body Region 8
1. Hypogastric Region
2. Located in lower-middle
section of abdomen, beneath
the umbilical region
3. Includes urinary bladder,
parts of small intestine,
appendix
Body Region 9
1. Left Inguinal (iliac)
Region
2. Located in lower-left
section of abdomen, beneath
the Left Lumbar Region
3. Includes parts of colon
and small intestine
Anatomical Position
1. Standard reference point for the body as a whole
2. Person is standing with the arms at the sides and the palms turned forward along with head and feet pointing forward
Superficial (1)
Near the suface of the body
Deep (1)
Away from the surface
Anterior (2)
Pertaining to the front of the body, or toward the belly of the body
Posterior (2)
Pertaining to the back of the body
Ventral (3)
Of or pertaining to a position toward the belly of the body; frontward; anterior
Dorsal (3)
Pertaining to the back; posterior
Medial (4)
Toward the midline of the body
Lateral (4)
Toward the side of the body; away from the midline of the body
Superior (5)
Above or upward toward the head
Inferior (5)
Below or donward toward the feet
Cranial (6)
Pertaining to the head
Caudal (6)
Pertaining to the tail
Distal (7)
Away from or the farthest from the trunk of the body; or farthest from the point of origin of a body part
Proximal (7)
Toward or nearest to the trunk of the body; or nearest to the point of origin of a body part
Supine (8)
Lying horizontally on the back, face-up
Prone (8)
Lying facedown on the abdomen
Supination (9)
A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward
Pronation (9)
A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward or backward
Plantar (10)
Pertaining to the sole of bottom of the foot
Dorsum (10)
The back or posterior surface of a part; in the foot, the top of the foot
Cell Membrane
Semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell
Chromosomes
Threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body
connective tissue
Tissue that supports and binds other body tissue parts.
cytoplasm
Gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of the cell - contains organelles, which carry out essential functions of the cell
epithelial tissue
Tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; it also lines the vessels, body cavigties, glands, and body organs
genes
segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics
lysosomes
cell organs (organelles) that contain various kinds of enzymes capable of breaking down all the main componenets of cells
mediolateral
pertaining to the middle and side of a structure
membrane
thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, divides a space
mitochondria
cell organs (organelles) which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions
Muscle Tissue
Tissue capable of producint movement of the parts and organs fo the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers
Navel
The umbilicus; belly button
Nervous Tissue
Tissue that transmits umpulses throughout the body, thereby, activating, coordinating, and controlly many functions of the body
Organ
Tissues that are arranged together to perform a special function
Peritoneum
A specific, serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera.
ribosomes
cell organs (organelles) that synthesize proteins; often called the cell's "protein factories."
skeletal muscle
Muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton
smooth (visceral) muscle
Muscle that is found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as teh stomach and intestines
system
organs that work together to permform many of the functions of the body as a whole
tissue
a group of cells that perform specialized functions
transverse plane
any of the planes cutting across the body pependicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
visceral
Pertaining to the internal organs