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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Vs of the ANS
visceral, vegetative, inVoluntary
fiber connecting primary cells to secondary cells of ANS
preganglionic fibers
the neurotransmitter of all sympathetic preganglionic fibers
ACh
the sympathetic neurotransmitter at the effector sites 99% of the time
NE
fibers that use NE as neurotransmitter
adrenergic fibers
the sympathetic system generally uses ___ postganglionic fibers per each preganglionic fiber
20
relative lengths of sympathetic pre vs postganglionic fibers
pre - short
post - long
target organ of sympathetic system that does NOT have NE as neurotransmitter
sweat glands (ACh is neurotransmitter)
the adrenal medulla is functionlally a sympathetic _______
ganglion
At the adrenal medulla, the neurotransmitter is ______
ACh
Adrenal medulla releases what ratio of EPI to NE
85:15
the rest and digest ANS system
parasympathetic system
relative lengths of pre vs postganglionic fibers in parasympathetic sys
pre- long
post - short
parasympathetic system is called "cholinergic" b/c ______
ACh is used at pre and post ganglionic terminals
transmitter at all ganglia and effector sites of parasympathetic syst
ACh
In parasymp sys, there is generally ____ post ganglionic fiber for each preganglionic fiber
1
Does adrenal medulla have dual symp and parasymp innervation
no, just symp
NANC neurons seem to be under parasympathetic control: what is neurotranmitter?
Nitric oxide
Rule: most organs are innervated by both branches of ANS, except ______
most blood vessels, liver, ventricular myocardium have little parasymp innervation
What are the 7 basic steps of neurotransmission?
1. synth and storage of neurotransmitter
2. Release of neurotransmitter
3. Diffusion of neurotransmitter across synaptic cleft
4. Interaction of n-transmitter with ost synaptic receptors
5. Na+/K+ exchange
6.Destruction of neurotransmitter
7. post synaptic site returns to unstimulated state
enzyme making acetylcholine
CAT (choline acetyltransferase)
acetylcholinesterases effet on acetylcholine
speeds production of acetic acid and choline
(gets rid of ACh)
subtypes of ACh receptors
nicotinic and muscarinic
receptors located on all autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla and at neuromuscular jx
nicotinic ACh receptors
receptors involved in neuromuscular transmission
nicotinic ACh receptors
receptor located on mainly PNS neuroeffector sites
muscarinic ACh receptors
receptor mediating parasympathetic responses
muscarinic ACh receptors
why is it advantageous to have a ligand gated ion channel?
speed
what type of ion channel is a nicotinic ACh receptor?
a ligand-gated ion channel
why are muscarinic receptors slower than nicotinic receptors?
muscarinic receptors are G protein-coupled receptor
G proteins associated with the odd mACh receptors
Gq
G proteins associated with the even mACh receptors
Gi or Go
aminno acid precursor for NA
L-Tyrosine
primary way to get rid of NE
reuptake into presynaptic cell
alpha-methyltyrosine and methyldopa?
inhibits NE synth
Stimulators of NE release
amphetamine
ephedrine
antagonists of NE release
guanethidine
reserpine
negative feedback mechanism for NE
alpha-2 receptors on pregang.
alpha-AR agonists
phenylephrine
methoxamine
clonidine
alpha-AR antagonists
phenoxybenzamine
phentolamine
prazosin
beta-AR agonists
isoproterenol
dobutamine
terbutaline
albuterol
beta-AR antagonists (beta blockers)
propranolol
metoprolol
"ubiquitous and promiscuous" enzyme
MAO
Tyramine causes release of ____
NE
"localized and specialized" enzyme
COMT
COMT metabolizes ______
catecholoamines
COMT is found in _____-synaptic cell
postsynaptic cell
Tyrosine --> Dopa --> _______
Dopamine
enzyme for NE --> Epi
phenylehtanolamine-N-methyltransferase
blocker of uptake 1 (pregang.)
cocaine
rate limiting step of catecholamine synth
tyrosine hydroxylase