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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
What are the four goals of psychology?
describe behavior
predict behavior
understand behavior
influence behavior
Earlist orgins of psychology date back to a greek philospher known as _____
Aristole
17th century French philospher developed a theory of human behavior called dualism
Renee Descartes
17th century English pilospher prosposed that all that exists are matter and energy, sobehavior can be understood in terms of physical processes of the body, including the brain.
Thomas Hobbes
professor of biology in Germany who was fascinated by human consciousness
Wilhem Wundt
school of thought that came from Wundt's approach
structuralism
English student that expanded Wundt's works
Edward Titchener
fellow stucturalist, made a discovery concerning our perception of heat and cold; first African-American to have a scientific article ina journal of the APA
J. Henry Alston
taught first course in psychology in the U.S. in 1875; published an influential early psychology textbook in 1890 (principles of psychology); influenced by Charles Darwin
William James
school of thought arising from James' works
Functionalism
Russian physcologist called the form of learning he discovered conditioning today called classical or pavlovian conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
American who accepted Pavlov's ideas
John Watson
principles of learning developed by Watson and Pavlov became known as the ______
basis of behaviorism
German who researched memory; noted for this work and for opening the way to study complex mechanisms
Herman Ebbringhaus
first female president of the APA
Mary Whiton Calkins
first women to receive a doctorate in psychology, 1908
Margaren Floy Washburn
first african american women to receive a doctorate
Inez Prosser
first african american man to be a professor or psychology in theU.S., having earned his doctorate in Germany in 1901
Gilbert Jones
20th century German who published an article on a perceptual effect he called the phi phenomenon
Max Wertheimer
Wertheimer with a group of others founded a school of thought called ______
Gestalt Psychology
German word that loosely translates to mean "whole form,"; psychologists believe that the mind must be understood in terms of organized wholes, not elementary parts
Gestalt psychology
Frenchman who int he early part of the 20th century developed the first IZ test, which was the beginning of the branch of psychology that specializes in measurement (intelligence, aptitude, personality etc.)
Alfred Binet
developed a theory and treatment of psychological problems call psychoanlytic theory/psychodynamic theory most important concept was the unconscious mind
Sigmund Freud
best known advocate of behaviorism; persistently said that human behavior is a product of enfiornment in which a person lives and grows
B.F. Skinner
behaviorist; instrumental in developing the Social Learnin Theory
Alfred Bandura
assumes that our personalities, beliefs attitudes and skills are learned from others; to understand a person the influences of culture, ethnic identity and other identities
sociocultural perspective
refers to knowledge and thinking and feeling
cognitive
proposes that the way we think about things is mostly responsible for our behavior and emotions
Cognitive psychology
conglomeration of theories of several; this psychological movement proposes that to determine our own fate through freewill
Humanistic psychology
proposes that our psychological characteristics are influenced by heredity and therefore also by chemical messenger-the neurotransmitters and hormones
biological perspective
study the ways in which the nervous system and other organs provide the basis for behavior
biological psychology
concerned with how the sense organs operate and how we interpret incoming sensory information in the process of perception
sensation and perception
the study of ways in which we learn and remember new information, new skills, new habits and new ways of relating to other people
learning and memory
concerned with changes that take place in people during their life span, as they grow from birth to old age
developmental psychology
study of the needs and states that activate and guide behavior, such as,hunger, thirst, sex, the need for achievement and the need to have relationships with others
motivation and emotion
focuses on the more or less consistent ways of behaving that characterize our personalities
personality
studies the influence of other people on our behavior; the behavior of people in groups, mobs, or organizations
social psychology
attempt to understand and treat emotional problems and correct abnormal behavior
clinical psychology
attempt to help people with personal or school problems and with career choices
counseling psychology
focuses on ways to match employees to jobs, to train and motivate workers, and to promote job satisfaction and good relationships among workers
industrial and organizational psychology
concerned with the ways children learn in the classroom and with the construction of psychological and educational tests
educational and school psychology
focuses on the ways in which pressures,conflicts, hardships and other factors contribute to poor health
health psychology