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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente
Britain, France, Russia (counter to Triple Alliance)
Schlieffen Plan
Germany; QUICK attack on France thru Belgium
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Assassinated by Gavrilo Princip (Austria-Hungary)
Gavrilo Princip
Serbian nationalist (started WWI)
Britain, France, Russia, +40 others
WWI, practiced by US at first: focus on internal affairs, not participate in war (neutral)
The Lusitania
British passenger liner sunk by Germans
Zingerman telegram
Secret message between Germany & Mexico; Wilson declares war on Germany
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI; VERY punishing towards Germany
Fourteen Points
Written by Woodrow Wilson; blueprint for peace after WWI; not accepted by the allies (they wanted money from Germany)
League of Nations
Proposed by Wilson's Fourteen Points; US actually doesn't join, nor does Germany/Russia (until later)
Russian Revolution
Czar Nicholas abdicated throne, ending Romanov dyn;
Local councils in Russia (under provisional gov during Revolution); Bolsheviks take over
Socialist party during Russian Revolution (Red Army)
"the Father of the Turks"; led military of Ottomans against Greeks; overthrew ottomans; formed Turkey
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Instituted by Lenin, disbanded by Stalin
Jospeh Stalin
Replaced NEP with Five Year Plans (sped up ag production)
Collecting farms and converting them to state-owned enterprises
Improved economy of Russia, but Stalin relied on terror tactics
How did fascism gain momentum?
Great Depression
Destroy will of indiv for the will of "the people", create unified society
Contrast: Fascism & Communism
Fascism didn't want to eliminate private property or class distinctions
Fascism vs Totalitarianism
Fascism is a subset of totalitarianism
Benito Mussolini
Created National Fascist Party in Italy
National Fascist Party in Italy paid Blackshirts to fight socialist organizations
How did Mussolini come to power?
He used the disparity of the factory workers and Italy's failing economy to rally support
Wiemar Republic
German system: conservative democratic republic; overthrown after Treaty of Versailles
National Socialist Party
Nazis in Germany; Nazism = extreme nationalism, ethnic superiority
"Leader" in German language (used by Nazis)
Third Reich
Government of Germany under Nazi control
Governing body in Germany after Weimar Republic
Fransisco Franco
Spanish general, took control of lg parts of Spain; supported by Italians & Germans (Franco wasn't fascist, but Germans didn't like the cur democracy)
Munich Conference of 1938
Hitler was given a piece of Czechoslovakia in return for promise of not expanding anymore
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Stalin/Hitler = truce; Hitler gets land including a clear path to Poland
Hitler's (not so) little secret
He was supposed to stop annexing lands, but he didn't, even after promising
Start of WWII
Hitler moves into Poland
Japanese invade Manchuria & rename it this
Anti-Comintern Pact
Japan and Germany sign an alliance (prelude to the one in WWII)
Rape of Nanjing
250,000 Chinese slaughtered by Japanese in city of Nanjing
"Lightning war"; tactic of Hitler's forces
Winston Churchill
New leader of Britain as Germans were approaching
Battle of Britain
(Superior) German air force vs British Royal Air Force; British win because they have radar
Tripartite Pact
Japan, Rome, Berlin
Pearl Harbor
Bombed by Japan in response to sanctions (which were b/c of Japan invading Vietnam)
Manhattan Project
Development of the atomic bomb
The final 3 allies in WWII
US, Soviet Union, Britain
Forces from Britain, US, and Canada launch offensive on Normandy beach (France)
Russians (Red Army) win at Stalingrad against Germans
President Truman
Ordered dropping of atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Marshall Plan
US offers billions to W Europe for reconstruction (it works WELL)
United Nations
Created after WWII; goal: mediate international disputes between nations (and later human rights issues)
Consequences of WWII
Holocaust is revealed, US & Soviet Union become superpowers, Europe is in ruins, colonialism declines, women have new role in society, international organizations created, cold war begins
Cold War Era (years)
1945-(early) 1990s
Berlin Blockade
Germany divided into 4 regions occupied by allies; Russia wanted their region to stay under its influence, wouldn't merge, and so they created a blockade
Soviet Bloc
Soviet satellites during cold war (E Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary)
Truman Doctrine
US says: We will aid countries threatened by commy takeover
Western bloc form military alliance
Warsaw Pact
Soviet bloc's response to NATO
Iron Curtain
Line between East and West Europe during Cold War Era
Sun Yat-sen
Led Chinese Revolution of 1911 (after fall of Manchu Dynasty); China becomes westernized and tries to oust European/Japanese spheres of influence
Three Principles of the People
Nationalism, socialism, democracy
Party established by Yat-sen
Mao Zedong
Gathers peasants, establishes Republic of China
Two Chinas
People's Republic of China (recognized by UN) and Guomindang party (Taiwan)
Great Leap Forward
Implemented by Mao Zedong; created communes to become true Marxist state
Mao Zedong's changes
Social reform similar to Stalin's five-year plans; closed down universities (NOT a good idea)
Outcome of communes in China
Failed. Quotas were too great, and Soviet Union no longer was supporting China
Cultural Revolution
Instituted by Mao Zedong to prevent prevent the creation of privileged ruling class
Tienanmen Square Massacre
Hundreds of protesters for democracy killed
What happened to Korea after WWII?
Japan has to give it up, Soviets occupy N, U.S. in S, can't agree, create sep. govs (sounds like Germany!)
General MacArthur
N Korea attacks S, MacArthur pushes his forces up to Chinese border, when Chinese join war for N and push back to 38th Parallel
Where was N/S Korea split?
38th parallel
Try to fight off France in Vietnam (wanted ind)
Ho Chi Minh
Controlled N Vietnam (commy)
Ngo Dinh Diem
Controlled S Vietnam (democratic)
Outcome of Vietnam Conflict
Country is reunited under communist Ho Chi Minh
Platt Amendment
Allowed US to have military bases & stay involved with Cuba
Batista Dictatorship
Cuba, policies favored wealthy; overthrown by Fidel in Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
Batista overthrown by Fidel Castro who establishes a communist gov (NOT a democratic one like he promised)
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Kennedy-authorized; Cuban exiles move in and are immediately captured
Cuban Missile Crises
US detects Soviet missiles in Cuba, forms blockade; Soviets back down in return for promise that US won't invade Cuba
Effect on standard of living in Europe during Cold War
West: improved dramatically

East: innovation lacked, divide between rich/poor widened
Lech Walesa
Led "Solidarity" movement in Poland; eventually became president
Solidarity Movement
Poland; Leads to new gov: democracy, econ reforms, and joining of NATO
German reuinification
Berlin wall falls, E Germany tries to get back with the W, cuts off Soviet ties
Germany WWI -> Reunification
Crushed in WWI -> built up by Nazis -> crushed in WWII -> occupied by 4 former enemies -> split in half -> epicenter of Cold War -> reunified
Mikhail Gorbachev
Leader in Soviet Union, restructured economy, added elements of capitalism, criticized Stalin--probably led to downfall
Ethnic cleansing: Muslims killed by Serbians
Part of Russia, Muslims wanted to break away
Indian National Congress
Mostly Hindu; Goal: Increase rights of Indians under colonial rule
Muslim League
Tried to advance the rights of Islamic Indians (remember: Indian National Congress was mostly Hindu)
Two movements after British give India independence
(1) By Gandhi: one nation, both religions allowed; (2) Muhammad Ali Jinnah: split India amongst two religions
Amritsar massacre
India; British general opens fire on peaceful protesters
What is effect of Amritsar massacre?
It gains a LOT of support for the independence movement in India
Mohandas Ghandi
Passive resistance (demonstrations, boycotts, etc); against British rule of India
Independent India divided
Three parts: Pakistan (Muslim; 2 parts: west and east, currently Pakistan and Bangladesh) and India (Hindu)
Result of India/Pakistan split
Millions had to migrate to new regions, created a LOT of conflict
Why couldn't former colonies in Africa estab strong states after independence?
Border lines were drawn without regard to ethnicity, people were uneducated, and there were few professionals (doctors, scientists, etc)
Why did Red Cross, Amnesty International, etc. form after WWII?
UN, World Bank, etc. did not represent the 3rd world, and now these orgs could effectively communicate travel (globalization)
Union in South Africa
Combined regions in South Africa, gave British and Dutch colonists many rights, but excluded blacks
South Africa; Prevented blacks from certain professions, made them move to certain (poorest quality land) regions, etc.
Nelson Mandela
African National Congress and first elected president of South Africa
African National Congress
Established by Mandela to get rid of apartheid; peaceful until Sharpeville massacre
Sharpeville massacre
Protesting blacks in South Africa are killed
Jewish nationalists during WWI, convince Balfour to give them a piece of Palestine
Balfour Declaration
Jewish people need a home in Palestine
Six Day War
Israelis take West Bank from Jordan Golan Heights from Syria, and Gaza Strip from Egypt
Camp David Accords
Israel pulls out of Sinai Peninsula and Egypt will recognize Israel's right to exist
Palestine Liberation Organization
Wants to reestablish a Palestinian state
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Iran shah tries to westernize Iran: it works, but Muslims are pissed off (women in school, etc)
Iranian Revolution
Got rid of the Shah (who had a policy of westernization) and returned to Islamic values
Gulf War
Iraq vs Kuwait (NOTE: Kuwait = lots of oil)