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25 Cards in this Set

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An ancient land bridge over which animals & the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia to America
An exposed & frozen isthmus between Siberia, Asia and Alaska during the last Ice Age.
A very cold period in which
huge ice sheets spread outward from the Polar Regions; last one lasting between 1,900,000-10,000BCE
Ice Age
enabled the beringia land bridge to allow animals & early humans to migrate into the Americas
A cultivated cereal grain that bears kernels on large ears; corn in U.S.
staple of native american diet
People enjoyed a more reliable source of food; families settled & formed large communities, humans learned new skills in arts, crafts, architecture & social organization & complex societies arose
Effects of Agriculture
antecedent of civilizations
An early Native American people who lived in S.W. North America & had an agrarian economy; cliffdwellers
houses built like apartments in cliffs of canyons
The earliest known civilization in Mezoamerica from 1200BCE & influenced later societies in the region
made huge stone heads which resembled Africans more than native americans.
Extending from Central Mexico to Honduras where several of the anxient complex societies of Americans developed
cultures in this area were the Olmec, Zapotec, Mayan, Aztec & Chiva Empires
An early Mesoamerican civilization that was centered in Oaxaca Valley of what is now Mexico.
The first Zapotec Civilization (500BCE) built the 1st real urban center in the Americas.
Monte Alban
1st urban city in Americas w/ population between 15,000 up to 25,000.
A rugged region of mountains & valleys of Southern Mexico where 3 valleys meet in center of state forming a large open area
Oaxaca Valley
home to Zapotecs & later tribes
1st major civilization of S. America which flourished in the highlands of Peru from 900-200 BCE; introduced religion of the jaguar.
Jaguar cult features often combined with human figures in a way similar to Olmec figures of Middle America
A civilization that flourished on what is now the northern coast of Peru from about AD100-AD700.
Created Nasca Lines - over 1,000 land drawings of animals, plants, humans, geometric shapes so huge they can only be recognized from planes.
A civilization that flourished on what is now the northern coast of Peru from AD100 to AD700.
Co-existed with the Nasca; known for fine pottery emphsizing sculptural form & metalcraft of copper, gold & gems.
Mountain range of western S. America stretching about 4,500 miles from Columbia in north to Chile in South.
Andes Mountains
home of the Incan Empire
North American Native American Empires that flourished betw. 1000-1300AD
Built huge mounds of earth in shapes of animals
Moundbuilder Empires
East of Great Plains, used artificial mounds for burials at 1st then as ceremonial mounds.
The last great Indian civilization to dominate Middle America; great builders; warlike people who used human sacrifice extensively & religious cannibalism; lived at Tenochtitlan on island in middle of a lake
excellent potters, textile weavers, feather embroiderers, stonecutters, & goldsmiths.
Civilization in Guatemala & S. Mexico; great artists, architects, & mathematicians; developed form of writing; made bark-cloth books w/ text & illustrations
scultors of stone, wood, and clay; ceremonial chambers w/ battle scenes & pictures of imaginary creatures
religious leaders of native american tribes
Native Americans of the Eastern U.S. including the Iroquois of New York State; made masks of wood carved from trees, animal hair and eyes & teeth of metal
Eastern Woodland Tribes
Included Adena, Hopewell, & Mississippian tribes of the eastern U.S.; develped into League of Nations
In Arizona & New Mexico the Pueblo Indians built stone & adobe (unfired clay) houses; 1st apartment houses of New World
Southwestern Tribes
Includes Hohokum, Mongollon, Navaho, Pueblo, ; made paintings by pouring sand of various colors on a smooth floor; pueblo painted ceremonial chambers w/ religious symbols of rain & crops.
Centers for religious ceremonies in Pueblo Indian villages; built partly underground with an entrance through a hole in the roof
religious ceremonial room entered from a hole in roof
French-Canadian word given to the Indian game of Eastern Woodland indians
teams used a single stuffed deerskin ball & two rackets.
Long-stemmed pipe used in Indian ceremonies in N.A.; the peacepipe smoked to unite hostile indian tribes/nations
indian peace-pipe
Name given to strings of shell beads made by Indians in coastal areas. Used as gifts, barter, trade or money
bead currency
Carved tablets used as calendars or records of events among the Maya
Mayan calendar