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76 Cards in this Set

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Mexican dictator who stepped down in 1911
Porfirio Diaz
Mexican liberal reformer who demanded free elections in 1910 and forced the resignation of the current mexican dictator and then became dictator for two years b4 he was murdered
Madero
post-madero, north mexican leader=
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
post-Madero, south mexican leader and followers
Zapata

Zapatists
1917 ____ elected president of mexico

who approved ____
Carranza


Constitution of 1917
Constitution of 1917
Mexico

allowed nationalization (government takover) of natural resources

basic workers rights
1929 ______ ________ party formed, dominates mexico politics even today
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
Economic Nationalism
emphasis on domestic control of the economy

Latin American Countries during the 1930s when demand dries up
Cultural Nationalism
pride in one's own culture

revived in Mexico with mural painting (art form of aztecs)
Diego Rivera
mexican muralist 1930s
jose clemente orozco
mexican muralist 1930s
David Alfaro Siqueiros
mexican muralist 1930s
US initial policy towards latin america, then its most recent policy and who initiated it
first, "international policemen"

roosevelt, "good neighbor"
Kiyuku
Kenyans who protested white rule and racist acts (identification cards, jobs, etc)
"Women's War" in Nigeria
Ibo women protest british policies, full-scale revolt
1948 South Africa
Apartheid
Apartheid
policy of strict racial separtion in South Africa

1948-1989
Pan-Africanism
emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world
Marcus Garvey
jamaican born

most famous pan-africanism person
Negritude Movement
french-speaking african movement to embrace heritage
Egyptian independence
Wafd Party protests, 1922 Britain agrees to give independence but stay as real power behind gov't

1930s Muslim brotherhood protests
Ataturk
Mustafa Kemal

gained independence for Turkey, declared republic

westernized Turkey
Iranian independence
1925 Reza Khan
Turkish independence
1923 Ataturk
Reza Khan
Iran

westernized

began oil deals with Britain (big issue in present)
Pan-Arabism
post WWI

sought to free Arabs from foreign domination and unite them in their own state
Arab problems with Paris Peace Conference after WWI
arab states promised independence, but divided into colonies for west

betrayal
modern Zionist movement founded by...


goal=
Theodor Herzl

independent jewish state in Palestine
WWII promises in palestine
1917 Balfour Declaration promises "national home for Jewish people" in Palestine
(but arabs already live there)

Arabs promised own kingdoms
Amritsar
city in India where 50 british soldiers open fire on men women and children meeting inside a walled area in the city
Gandhi
Mahatma "great soul"

passive resistance "satya-graha" (soul-force)

equal rights for everyone
ahimsa
non violence

gandhi
dhoti
white clothing worn by majority of indians

Gandhi
The Salt March
Gandhi

March 12

end to british salt monopoly
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
congress party leader

wanted independent Muslim Pakistan
WWII and India
British delay inevitable independence

force Indian help, but recieve very little

independence afterward
1930s Dicators challenge World Peace (3)
1931 Japan seizes Manchuria

1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia

1936 Hitler puts troops in demilitarized zone
pacifism
opposition to all war

1930s during world depression

reason all invasions by japs, germans, italians ignored
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
fight Soviet communism

wont get in the way of eachothers expansions
1931
1936 Spain
Old Monarchy overthrown, contraversial republican gov't
-->
Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Loyalists vs Nationalists

Nationalists=Fascists=Franco

Axis powers support nationalists

Some of West supports loyalists

Franco wins
Guernica
Spanish civil war; bomb raid by german

Nazi experiment to test power of planes
Colonial Legacy:Economics
introduced new industries

economic dependence on west


large farms, etc still owned by west
Colonial Legacy:Politics
Africans used to suppression, overbearing European rule

after independence expect to just "know" how to rule as a democratic nation when they have never been under one
Colonial Legacy:Health Care and Education
limited/no access to education

didnt provide much health care, left to missionaries
Colonial Legacy: National Borders
borders drawn by colonial powers

diverse ethnic groups, conflicting interests=civil war, unrest

new leaders try to make unity where there is none
Post WWII-West's response to African nationalism
early defeats by Jap show West weakness

West unwilling to fight and suppress indp. movements

1947 independence of india used as inspiration
Kwame Nkrumah
Gold Coast (Ghana)

nationalist leader

post WWII
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenya

nationalist leader

post WWII
Leopold Senghor
Senegal

nationalist leader

post WWII
Gold Coast/Ghana
1957 from Britain

Kwame Nkrumah=prime minister, leader through independence

changed name to Ghana; more african symbolism
Kenya
1963 from Britian

Jomo Kenyatta made PM (spokesman for Kikuyu)

Kikuyu vs White settlers

Mau Mau uprising
Mau Mau uprising
Kenya

Mau Mau=british name for guerrillas who rebelled against their rule

made to look like savages
Algeria
1962 independence from France

National Liberation Front by Muslim Algerians-guerilla warfare to try and get independence

hugely costly to france and algeria
Anschluss
union of Austria and Germany

engineered by hitler after forcing germans into gov't positions
germany's second victom after austria

what did they do to them
Czechoslovakia

wanted autonomy for 3 mil germans in sudentenland (west Czech.)---french and british use appeasement and let hitler annex it
"Peace for our time"

"The fools, why are they cheering?"
Chamberlin-GB

Daladier-France
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Hitler nonaggression pact with Stalin USSR

secretly agreed to divide up poland and not to fight eachother

mutual need
after czech., germany invades ______

and then ....
Poland

Britain and France declare war on Germany
Blitzkreig
Lightning War

hitlers war technique
Miracle of Dunkirk
British trapped on coast, saved by merchant ships, etc
Operation Sea Lion
the invasion of Britain by Hitler

massive air strikes on London

FAILED: GB morale increases
Operation Barbarossa
post Op Sea Lion

invasion of Russia

Russians=scorched earth policy; germans freeze/starve

Stalin and Britain agree to work together
Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill

pledged to destroy nazi tyranny
Japanese General who orders Pearl Harbor, etc
General Tojo Hideki
The Big Three
Churchill Roosevelt Stalin

mucho distrust
El Alamein
Battle where British stop German Advance in Egypt
Battle of Stalingrad
Hitler vs. Stalin

Stalin wins, then drives Germans out of Russia entirely
Island hopping campaign in Pacific by..
Douglas McArthur
kamikaze
pilots who kill themselves by crashing into ships
first a bomb in...

second..
hiroshima

nagasaki
Zimbabwe guerilla leaders
Mugabe and Nkomo
Southern Rhodesia becomes....
Zimbabwe
South Africa
Mandela
White South African president who makes all the reforms and freed mandela
FW de Klerk
Namibia
SWAPO Southwest African People's Organization