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45 Cards in this Set

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An Ino-European person who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000BCE.
Mycenaean
these people's leading city was Mycenae, heavily fortified on a steep, rocky ridge in southern Greece.
A war, fought around 1200BCE in which an army led by Mycennaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia.
Trojan War
Homer's Illiad told of this war against ______.
A Greek-speaking people that traditonally may have migrated into mainland Greece after destruction of the Mycennaean Civilization
Dorians
a people related to Bronze age Greeks, spoke Greek & less advanced w/ no written record 1150-750BCE, gov. by city states not tribal/clan
A blind Greek storyteller believed to have written the epics Illiad & Odyssey
Homer
wrote epics between 750-700BCE about the Trojan War & voyage back to Greece
A long, narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds of legendary or traditional heroes.
epic
Ex. The Illiad & The Odyssey
A traditional story about the gods, ancestors, or heroes told to explain the natural world/customs & beliefs of society
myth
Thegony by Hesiod was the source of many Greek _______, as a way to understand nature's mysteries and power of human passions.
A Greek city-state; the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after 750BCE
polis
a city & surrounding countryside including villages (50-500 sq.miles w/ < 10,000 residents)
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city.
acropolis
place citizens gathered to discuss city government
A government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
monarchy
rule by a hereditary King/Queen
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
aristocracy
small group of rich, noble landowning families who gained political power from serving in king's military cavalry
A government in which power is shared between the nobility and wealthy merchants & artisans
oligarchy
gov. rule by a few powerful wealthy people.
In ancient Greece, a powerful individual who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing to the poor.
tyrant
powerful political leader that may rule justly/cruelly in representing needs of people; set up building projects to provide jobs & housing for supporters.
A government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives.
democracy
In Athens, Greece a government in which citizens participate directly in political decision-making
A peasant bound to the land in the society of ancient Sparta
helot
Messenians became ______ or peasants forced to stay on land they worked (forced sharecroppers)& owed half their crops to Sparta.
A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and sheilds.
phalanx
military formation composed of foot soldiers standing side by side w/each holding a spear & shield
A series of wars in the 5th C. BCE in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire.
Persian Wars
Persian king Darius the Great attacked the Greek Ionians leading to Battle of Marathon in which Athens decidedly defeated Persia w/ loss of only 200 to 6000 Persians
Government in which citizens rule directly rather than through representatives.
Direct Democracy
Each citizen takes part in political decision-making (ex. New England town meeting)
The art of ancient Greece & Rome, in which harmony, order, & proportion were emphasized.
classical art
Examples: Red & Black pottery, Nike of Samothrace sculpture, The Parthenon, & Dramatic Masks & Theater
A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic/noble character.
tragedy
Two types of Greek Plays were Comedy & _______ depicted by the masks the actors wore.
A humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick & satire.
comedy
Playwright Aristophanes wrote The Birds and Lysistrata which were two great forms of _________.
A war, lasting from 431-404 BCE in which the people of Athens & its allies were defeated by Sparta & its allies.
Peloponnesian War
In this war Athens had the stronger navy & Sparta the stronger army; Athens suffered a plague and defeats on land and sea
A thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society & morality
philosopher
Greek word meaning "lovers of wisdom"
Greek Philosopher who left behind no writings but was discussed by Plato & Aristophones as being wise & eccentric; used method of questioning to find answers
Socrates
found guilty of corrupting youth of Athens & not honoring the Greek gods; committed suicide drinking Hemlock poison
Student of Socrates who wrote "The Republic" ; founded The Academy in 387 BCE
Plato
used the quote: " Philosophy begins in wonder"
Son of a physician, student at The Academy; opened his own school The Lyseum (335BCE)
Aristotle
Quote: "He who studies how things originated...will achieve the clearest view of them"
King of Macedonia in 329BCE at age 23; brillian general & ruthless politician, used phalanx military formation & pykes in battle; conquered Greek City-States in Battle of Chaeronea 338BC
Phillip II
wished to invade Persia but was assassinated at daughter's wedding
Mountainous region of Greece with rought territory & cold climate; citizens were hardy mountain people
Macedonia
Less sophisticated than other city-states w/ little sculpture, pottery, theatre or art but had shrewd, strong kings
Son of Philip II who became King of Macedonia in 336 BCE at age 20, was taught 3 yrs. by Aristotle; great military tactitian, conquered Persian Empire
Alexander the Great
Defeated Darius III & invaded Indiain 326BC, fought for 11 yrs. & marched 11,000 miles; fell ill w/fever in spring 323BC & died @ age 32.
King of Persia who raised an army of 50-75,000 soldiers to stop Alexander's army at Issus (335BC)& later @ Gaugamela Both were lost & Persia was conquered in 332BC.
Darius III
wounded & died by his generals after Battle of Gaugamela
Relating to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature of Greeksfrom reign of Alexander the Great to the late 2nd Century.
Hellenistic
Greek (Hellenic) culture blended w/ Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures (all regions Alexander conquered)
An Egyptian city of the Hellenistic world which became a commercial center of Hellenistic culture, home of the Pharos Lighthouse & Alexanders' Glass Coffin, royal palaces & major harbors on Mediterranean Sea
Alexandria
built by Alexander the Great; home of Alexandria Library held 500,000 papyrus scrolls & Museum had art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens & dining hall as an advance learning institute.
A mathematician of Alexandria who taught & wrote "The Elements" as the basis for modern Geometry Courses
Euclid
developed 465 propositions & proofs for Geometric Theorems
Hellenistic scientist of Syracuse who studied at Alexandria; explained laws of the lever as a tool.
Archimedes
developed ideas leading to inventions like the force pump, pneumatics & a steam engine; discovered value of Pi as ratio of circumference of circle to its diameter
A 100ft. high bronze statue standing at the entrance to island of Rhodes harbor which became one of 7 Wonders of Ancient World
Colossus of Rhodes
destroyed by eathquade in 225BCE & sold for scrap bronze
A person who has certain rights & duties because he/she lives in a particular city/town.
Citizen
In the U.S.A. if you are born within its borders you are automatically a ________, immigrants can be naturalized through legal procedures.
To rise up against a government; to refuse to obey the people in charge.
Revolt
People in many countries _______ during a revolution against the government
The basic laws & rules of a government.
Constitution
The U.S. ___________ was written by James Madison as a blueprint for government
A group of people who listen to the facts and decide if a person on trial is guilty or not guilty.
Jury
a person on trial for a crime is entitled to a ______ & trial by his peers.
A deadly disease that spreads quickly
Plague
Ex. Smallpox, Bubonic, Typhoid, et.al.
A person trained to take part in competitive sports events.
Athlete
The Olympic Games of Greece involved many ___________ who competed against one another
To murder a leader or other important person
Assassinate
Phillip II of Macedonia was ___________ by a former guard at his daughter's wedding.
A series of battles all aimed at one military end
Campaign
Alexander launched an 11 yr. series of Military _____________.
The drive to become powerful, successful, or famous
Ambition
Alexander's _________ was to conquer the world and assimilate many cultures.
A person who gains control by winning a war.
Conqueror
Most ambitious military leaders Alexander was a ___________ of many countries and empires.
A high-ranking military officer.
General
Commander of an army whose rank is noted by stars in the U.S. Armed Forces.