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23 Cards in this Set

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hominid
creature belonging to the family hominidae, which inclues human and human-like creatures
homo sapiens
"conciously thinking human"
first appeared 50,000 yrs ago
sophisticated tools
paleolithic
Old Stone Age, long period of human development before the development of agriculture
hunting and gathering
way of getting food by killing game animals (men) and gathering plants (women)
Cro-Magnon
homo sapiens sapiens-40,000 yrs ago in paleolithic era, first human beings of the modern type
Neolithic
New Stone Age (10,000 to 4,000 BCE) discovered and mastered agriculture
Slash and Burn
used in agriculture, slashes bark of trees then burned it (so sun could get to the ground)-made soil fertile, had to move around because nutrients would be used up
Specialization of Labor
surplus of food enabled people to concentrate time on their professions like art, pottery, wood carvings, tools, baskets
Metallurgy
started from copper, then brass and iron, could hammer into sheets or extract it from ores by heat, could make good tools
Gilgamesh
legendary king of Mesopotamian city-state Uruk (3000 BCE) subject of "Epic of Gilgamesh" - oldest complete epic literary masterpiece
Mesopotamia
"land between the rivers"-Tigris and Euphrates-formed cities-lots of interactions with other peoples
Sargon of Akkad
creator of empire in Mesopotamia, overthrew kings and destroyed walls, putting Mesopotamia under his rule, controlled trade routes and taxes and great armies
Hammurabi
Babylonian conqueror "king of the four quarters of the world"
Lex talionis
"law of retaliation"-offenders sufered punishments resembling their violation, also taking upon social standing
patriarchy
authority over public and private auffairs vested in men; family-decided work, marriage; public- all public affairs and policies decided by men
Abraham
came from Sumer, migrated to Palestine, his descentandts recognized Mesopotamian deities, values, and customs; borrowed lex talionis and flood stories
Hebrews
from pastoral nomads to in land between Egypt and Mesopotamia-migrated a lot
Monotheism
Moses first to embrace it; only one god (Yahweh in Judaism); all other deities were false imposters
Torah
set of holy scriptures, which lay down Yahweh's law and outlines his role in creating the world and guiding human affairs; he rewards the ones who obey and punish those who don't (individual or whole communities)
Phoenicia
trading empire on the coast of the Mediterranean; no farming a lot of industry and trade; alphabetic writing
Indo-Europeans
group of people with similar languages (most European, Hindi, Farsi-Iran, Greek, Latin), in a similar geographical area
migration
movement of people
polytheism
belieft in more than one god, more accepting to other gods, based more on practices, not beliefs