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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many named species are there on earth today?
1.5 to 1.7 million species
What is an estimated guess for the amount of species that exist on earth today? How many do most think exist?
7-10 million
10-30 million
What book written by Linnaeus based on species classification?
Systema Naturae
Described all known animals
• Used these Latin polynomials
• By 10th edition (1758), he had shortened these polynomials to two-word Latin names or binomials, which we use today
What is systematics?
is the study of the
relationships that occur among
organisms and their evolutionary history
Who wrote the classifcation system and how many taxon are there?
Hieracrhy based on work of Karl Von
Linne (Carolus Linnaeus, 1707-1778)– a
Sweedish botanist and naturalist.
The system is the Linnaean classification
B. The system ranks organisms into seven major levels or taxons
What are the major 7 taxons?
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus
7. Species
What are the two kingdoms recognized in the 1970's?
Plantae, Animalia
Now, what are the 5 major kingdoms?
Protista, Fungi, Monera, Plantae, Animalia
Describe the Monera Kingdom.
single, simple-celled organisms with prokaryotic cells (w/o membrane-bound nucleus, mitocondria) – e.g., bacteria, cyanobacteria
Describe the Protista kingdom.
single, simple-celled organisms with eukaryotic cells (w/ nucleus & mitochondria) –
e.g., protozoa, algae
Describe the Fungi kingdom.
multicellular, saprophytic decomposers –
e.g., yeasts, mushrooms, mycorrhizae
Describe the Plantae kingdom
multicellular, photosynthetic
organisms – e.g., plants
Describe the Animaliae Kingdom
multicellular, heterotrophic
organisms – e.g., animals
What are the three other recognized domains?
Bacteria-common bacteria, part of organisms from Monera, Archaea- ancient bacteria, contains other parts of Monera, Eukarya-all other organisms, with/membrane bound nucleus
What is a species?
A. Have a common ancestry (related)
B. And can breed and produce fertile offspring
that resemble the parents
What is a species?
Breed among themselves in the wild (biological
• Morphological differences
• DNA differences
• Hybrids
What is the morphological species definition?
If they look different (according to experts)
then they are two species.
– Fairly functional but there are problems
– Geographical variation can make it difficult
What are some of the challenges of studying species?
• Endangered Species Act
hybrids, geographical hybrids, geographical
variation, barrier changes, field study variation, barrier changes, field study
conditions. conditions.
What are taxonomists?
biologists that name species and are experts in species identification
How are we doing on naming species?
birds, butterflies and mammals- great
tropical beetles, nematodes, soil mites, fungi, bacteria- very poorly
What is the binomial system?
A. A method developed by Linnaeus
B. Each individual species has its own
unique two-part name (scientific name:
Passer domesticus) which is made up of:
1. The Genus
2. The specific epithet
3. The specific epithet is never written alone.
The species’ name is the binomial
What is an epithet?
a particular adjective in latin that describes a characteristic of the species
For naming a new species what is the binomial followed by?
the name of the taxonomist who named the species and the date the species was named
Describe the way the bald eagle species is named
Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Hali- sea, aeetus-eagle, leuco- white, cephalus- head
What s the Genus for long-legged species of hares?
What is the Genus for rabbit-like mammals?
what is the Order for the Pikas, rabbits and hares?
Also the family for the pikas
Lagomorpha, Ochontidae
What is the class do species with hair and mammary glands called?
What Phylum do mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish belong in? Why are they similar in this aspect?
Chordata, posses a bony cartilaginous endoskeleton
What Phyla belong to the Kingdom Animalia?
Chordata, Porifera-sponges, Annelida-segmented worms, Arthropida-insects, arachnids, crustaceans
How do Orders, families, subfamilies and tribe names end?
Orders-end in -a
families end in-idea
subfamliy names end in -inae
tribe names end in -ini
What are type specimens?
speciemens that are the animals used to originally describe the species, kept in a museum of record
What are type species?
the species that was used to describe the genus
What is Clasdistics?
Phylogenetic (evolutionary development of species) systematics, evaluating species relationships with emphasis on evolutionary origin
What are "Splitters" and what are "lumpers"
splitters- those taxonomists who want to make many diff. subdivisions
lumpers- taxonomists who want to simplify the scheme of taxonomy
What is the ITIS?
Integrated Taxonomic Information System- authorative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi and microbes
What are Herpetofauna?
Amphibians (Amphibia) and Reptiles (Reptilia)
Describe herpetofauna.
ectothermic (cold-blooded), tetrapods (A vertebrate animal with four feet, legs, or leglike appendages); 5500 amphibians species, 8000 reptilian species
How many species are fish, mammals and birds
fish- 23-25,000
mammals- 4800
Describe the benefits of ectothermy for herps.
very efficient energy converters- require 3% of food needed by mammals of the same size
use about 50%
What are some cons for ectothermy?
geographic distribution restricted to warm climates, as ambient temperature drops they slow down- which makes them more vulnerable to predators, less able to catch prey
What is the class for amphibians?
Amphibia or (Lissamphibia)
What does "liss" mean?
liss-smooth-scaleless skin; lacks claws
What is buccopharyngeal respiration?
buccopharyngeal respiration, superficial blood vessels on roof of mouth where gas exchange can occur, some species have a 4th method of respiration; A special sort of breathing used by frogs. Gas exchange occurs directly across the roof of the mouth which is lined with many blood vessels. These blood vessels are able to take up oxygen from the fresh air and get rid of the waste carbon dioxide.
Describe the skin of amphibians?
permeability of skin to water, high permeability- high rate of water loss, therefore, only active during high humidity and low wind- most active at night, most diverse in moist environments, permits existence in more arid environments-if they exist there-then live underground
What does amphibian's middle ears consist of? what about the middle ear?
stapes and operculum, papilla basilaris (receives high frequency sound input through the stapes), papilla amphibiorum (receives low frequency sound via the operculum)
What are "green rods"?
specialized receptor cells found in salamander and frogs, unknown function; sensitive to blue light
What are pedicellate teeth?
Amphibian tooth structure characterized by a tooth crown (protrudes above gum)that sits on a pedicel (elongated base), with a fibrous connection that separates the crown and pedicel.
What are the two types of skin glands amphibians have?
mucous glands-secrete mucous to keep skin moist, poison glands-produce toxin of varying potency
What is a poison dart frog?
toxin from one skin cell can kill 20 humans
What is aposematic coloration?
Conspicuous, usually bright, “do not attack” warning colors that discourage would-be predators. May signal characteristics that are noxious (bad taste),
poisonous (toxic substance that is harmful if bitten or ingested), or dangerous (e.g., can inject
a venom into predator). Examples include some frogs, some salamanders and newts
(Salamandridae), and coral snakes (Elapidae).
Describe amphibian traits
1. Are four-legged
2. Have smooth, moist skin
3. Lack scales
4. Toes lack claws
5. Lay shell-less, jelly-covered eggs
6. Usually have an aquatic larval
7. Three-chambered heart – one
ventricle and two atria
What are the three orders for amphibia? identify their common names too
Caudata- salamanders, Anura- frogs and toads
Apoda- caecillians
Describe the Order Caudata.
newts and salamanders, occur primarily in NA and temperate Eurasia, 52 species, highest diversity in the mountains,
What are the two top families for the Caudata Order?
Plethodontidae first,
Ambystomatidae second
Describe the morphology and physiology of the Caudata Order.
elongated bodies, trunk superficially segmented y costal grooves-used to facilitate water movement, long trunk and tail=thrust, most have 4 limbs, voiceless (use pheromones)
Describe reproduction in the Caudata Order.
Fertilization mostly internal, external in the hellbender, internal in all others- male has no intromittent organ, deposits sperm on a spermatophore, female clasps sperm packed in cloaca
Describe the life cycle locations for the Caudata family.
jelly covered eggs in aquatic habitat, larvae in aquatic habitat, adults in aquatic or terrestrial
What are some modifications to the Caudata life cycle?
3-stage cycle simplified
1. direct development
2. paedomorphis- Retention of juvenile characteristics in the adult
3. fourth stage is added- the eft stage in Newts- terrestrial juvenille and aquatic adult
What is Paedomorphis?
Retention of juvenile characters into adult life. Sirens and mudpuppies are
classic examples and most salamanders retain some juvenile characteristics as adults.
Describe the fourth stage in Caudata.
aquatic newt larvae transform into non-reproductive terrestrial eft stage
the eft stage can persist for as long as 14 yrs..reproduction occurs after eft stage transforms into aquatic adult
What does smaller surface to volume ratio mean for eggs?
lower rate of water loss
Where is it better for Caudata to live-streams or ponds?
streams-more food and higher oxygen concentration
What is cutaneous respiration?
The skin contains an extensive vascular network of capillaries which allow for gas exchange to take place just below the epidermis. Cutaneous respiration is facilitated by pumping air in and out of the mouth where further respiratory gas exchange can take place. The buccal (mouth) cavity has a highly vascularized membrane system that supplements cutaneous respiration in lungless, gill-less amphibians; three respiratory surfaces, aquatic stage uses gills, terrestrial stage uses lungs-both use skin
Describe salamander larvae.
similar in body form to juveniles & adults, except for eternal gills and tail fins, strictly carnivorous, develop 4 limbs shortly after hatching
What changes take place in a salamander during metamorphosis?
resorption of gills and tail fin, close of gill slits, development of stratified epithelium, eyelids & fleshy tongue develop, tooth maturation
What are the different type of structures do Caudata respire with? name which ones do which.
some have lungs and gills-siresns and mudpuppies, some have lungs and gill-slits-hellbenders and amphium
many lack both and respire by mouth (skin glands and buccopharyngeal)-plethodontids
Describe the habitat of the Caudata order.
some totally aquatic or terrestrial, many inhabit moist areas and breed in water, some aer arboreal (mainly plethodontids)
What family does the hellbender belong to? What order? where is it found?
Caudata (Urodela) order, Cryptobranchidae-only in Eastern US
What order and family do sirens belong to?
Caudata (Urodela) order, Sirenidae- lesser and greater- eastern US
What order and family do mudpuppies and waterdogs belong?
Caudata, Proteidae
What is the order and family for amphiumas? where are they found?
Caudata order, Amphiumidae famly (two-toed)-SE US
What is the order and family for newts and where aer they found?
Caudata, Salmandridae, in NA (eft and newts)
Which families are aquatic in the Caudata order?
Cryptobranchidae (hellbender), Sirenidae (sirens), Proteidae (mudpuppies and water dogs), Amphiumidae (amphiuma) and Salamndridae (newts and efts)
What are the characteristics of aquatic paedomorphic species?
reduced eyes, lidless eyes
tail fins
external gills or gill slits
reduced limbs
Which Family has the eft stage in the Caudata order.
Which families are aquatic in the Caudata order?
Salamandria, Cryptobranchidae, Sirenidae, Proteidae, Amphumidae
Which family lives in fast-flowing streams as adults in the Caudata order?
Which family deposits their eggs on the underside of leaves of submerged vegetation in the Caudata order?
Which family has external fertilization in the Caudata order?
Which families have lungs and gill-slits in the Caudata order?
Cryptobranchidae and Amphumidae
Which families live in the Eastern US mostly in the Caudata order?
Salamandria, Cryptobranchidae, Sirenidae, Proteidae,
Which family lives in streams and can have communal nests in the Caudata order?
Which families have lungs and gills in the Caudata order?
Sirenidae and Proteidae
Which families live in swamps, ditches and slow-moving streams in the Caudata order?
Sirenidae and Amphumidae
Which family eat algae in the Caudata order?
Which families can escape drought conditions in the Caudata order? and how?
Sirenidae and Amphumidae- burrowing or secreting a mucous cocoon
Which families live in multiple habitats in the Caudata order?
Proteidae and Plethodontidae
Which family lays their eggs on rocks in the Caudata order?
Which family eats small verts, amphibians, reptiles and fish in the Caudata order?
Which family deposits long string of eggs in mud in the Caudata order?
Which family is the most diverse family in the Caudata order?
What is the name of the order and family of lungless salamanders?
Plethodontidae, Caudata
What families are terrestrial in the Caudata order?
Plethodontidae and Ambyostomatidae
What family lacks both lungs and gills in the Caudata order?
Which family has species that live in arboreal habitats in the Caudata order?
Which family is the only family that has species in the tropics in the Caudata order?
Which family has webbed feet to prehensile tails and robust to elongated bodies in the Caudata order?
What families had an ancestor who lived in fast flowing streams in the Caudata order?
Plethodontidae and Salamandria
Which family is underground most of their lives in the Caudata order?
Which family has endangered species in the Caudata order?
What is the order of frogs and toads, class?
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura (Salienta)
Which orders has jelly covered eggs?
Caudata, Anura
Which order has costal grooves, elongated bodies?
Which order is voiceless and pheromones?
Which order has paedomorphosis and metamorphism?
Which order has cutaenous respiration and a specialized buccopharyngeal respiration?
What order's front end was adapted to absorb shock?
Anura (Salienta)
What order has no ribs or tail?
Which order has an elongated pelvic, projectile or free tongue, has lungs, keen hearing and a well developed vocal apparatus?