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44 Cards in this Set

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2 main pancreatic hormones?
insulin & Glucagon
Pancreatic cells that secrete insulin and glucagon?
islets of langerhans
pancreatic cells that secrete digestive jucies?
acini
islets of langerhans cell types:

alpha?
beta?
delta?
alpha-glucagon-25%
beta-insulin/amaline-60%
delta-somatastatin-10%
last 5%-pancreatic peptides
what inhibits glucagon secretion?
insulin and somatastatin
what inhibits insulin secretion?
somatastatin
insulin causes excess carbs to stored as?
glucagon first, then fats
insulin synthesis?
beta cells-RNA translation by ribosomes attatched to ER-preproinsulin-cleaved to form proinsulin, cleaved by golgi to form insulin
is insulin bound or unbound?

1/2 life?
almost all unbound

6 minutes (insulinase in liver)
insulin receptor?
4 units, 2 disulfide linkages

an example of an enzyme linked receptor
insulin facilitates the transport of?
Glucose
AA's
phosphate ions
K ions
During most of the day, what does muscle depend on for energy?
FA's
Muscles utilize large amounts of glucose on which 2 occasions?
during heavy exercise and right after a meal
effects of glycogen?

stored mainly where?
maintanace of blood glucose?

liver
insulin inactivates __________ to allow glycogen storage in the liver?
liver phosphorylase
insulin increases the action of?
glucokinase
insulin inhibits ________ in the liver?

therefore insulin promotes the conversion of excess glucose to ____?
gluconeogenesis

Fatty acids-trig's-LDLs-blood-adipose tissue-fat (glycerols)insulin
the brain does/does not need insulin to utilize glucose?
does not
long term effect of lack of insulin? 5
arthlerosclorosis
increase use of fat for energy
lypolisis fo stored fat
high plasma FFA'a-cholesterol-lipids
low protien (wasting)
other effects of insulin? 3
promotes FA synthesis/storage
increase the transport of G into the liver cells. (pyruvate-acetyl Coa)
promotes protien formation
excess use of fats for energy lead to -------?
ketosis, DKA

(high levels of acetoacetic acid =from acetyl Coa, acetone, butyric acid.)
what is the primary controller of insulin secretion?
blood glucose levels.
glucose in the cell?
phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by glucokinase
sulfonarhea drugs do?
stimulate insulin secretion
AA's that stimulate insulin secretion?
arginine and lysine
diabetes from glucocorticoids stems from....?
depletion of the beta cells
insulin promotes the use of _______ for energy?

lack of insulin causes ________ utilization?
carbohydrates

Fats/protiens
glucagon secreted where?


in response to?
alpha cells in islets in pancreas.

low blood glucose and increased AA's, exercise
Glucagon function? 4
-increases blood glucose in response to low levels of G.
-causes glycogenolysis(glycoge to glucose)
-activates adopiose cell lipase (ups FA's)
-prevents liver uptake of triG's
glucagon effects? 4
increased blood glucose
increased FA'a
increased, CO, squeeze, renal and bile function
inhibits gastric secretions
THE OPPOSITE OF INSULIN
AA's that stimulate the secretion of glucagon?
alanine and arginine
what inhibits glucagon secretion? 2
increased blood glucose

somatastatin
somatastatin from where in pancreas?

what stimulates it?
delta cells, 3min 1/2 life

stimulated by all factors related to eating and food uptake
somatistatin effects?
inhibitory:

decreased insulin/glucagon

decreased motility, absorption, makes the food stay around longer
What process in the liver provides glucose in a fasting state?
gluconeogenesis
Tissues that don't require insulin for glucose utilization?
brain/CNS
retina
germinal epthelium of the gonads
Exceseive blood glucose leads to ? 4
-osmotic diuresis causing hypovolemia and electrolye deficiencies (>180)
-vascular damage
-artherosclerosis
-nerve damage
hallmark signs of DM? 3
polyuria
thirst
dehydration
DM 1 vs 2?
DM1: high G, low insulin

DM2: high G, high insulin
metabolic syndrome? 5
obesity-belly
hyper G
low HDL's, high trig's
insulin resistance
HTN
other causes of DM/insulin resistance? 5
polycystic ovary syndrome
cushings
acromegaly

pregnancy
drugs
drugs to treat insulin resistance?
resistance decrease;
metformin
THIAZOLIDINOINE

sulfonureas (secrete more)
signs of hypoglycemia? 3
nervousness
sweating
tremor
hypoglycemia coma only?
no rapid breathing, acetone breath in hypoglycemia coma